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PSYCH 100 Mid-Year Review.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Joyce Davidson

PSYCH 100 Mid-Year Study Notes Chapter 1 – Science of Psychology Psychology – The science of behavior Why Study Psych? - Causal Events – Events that cause other events to occur - Studying the reasons for particular behaviours - Human behavior is the root of the world’s problems - Health related problems – Often caused by behavior Fields of Psychology - Physiological psychology – Examine physiology of behavior, study phenomena that occur in non- human animals as well - Comparative psychology – Explain behavior by studying members of a variety of species - Behaviour analysis – effect of environmental events on behavior – interested in learning and motivation - Behaviour genetics – role of genetics in behavior - Cognitive psychology – study of mental processes and complex behaviours (e.g. perception, attention, learning, memory) - Cognitive neuroscience – Similar to cognitive psych, but attempts to discover brain mechanisms responsible for behaviours - Developmental psychology – Study of emotional and social development especially in children - Social psychology – Study of effects of people on people –> cause an effect relations, attitudes, opinions, sexual behaviour etc. - Personality psychology – Study of individual differences in temperament and patterns of behavior - Evolutionary psychology – Looks to explain other aspects of psychology by looking at their adaptive significance - Cross-cultural psychology – study of the impact of culture on behavior - Clinical psychology – study of psychological disorders and problems of adjustment -> most are practitioners that try to help people solve their problems Philosophical Roots of Psychology - Early people believed that their bodies were controlled by their minds or spirits: Animism - Ancient Greeks: “Do people have free will?”, “are people good or evil?” - Greek posed questions through rationalism – pursuit of truth through logic - Socrates – Perceptions are not the same as reality - Rene Descartes: World was a mechanic entity run by god, reactions were called reflexes, and occurred mathematically-> Descartes was proponent of dualism -> belief that that reality can be divided into mind and matter - John Locke -> Disagreed with rationalism, and replaced with empiricism – pursuit of truth through experience - George Berkeley -> We must learn how to perceive, knowledge of events comes from past experiences - James Mill – aminism to materialism: Reality can only be known through understanding of the physical world - Philsophical approack eventually abandoned for a scientific approach Physiological Roots of Psychology - Johannes Muller: Doctrine of specific nerve energies -> All messages sent along nerves was the same - Pierre Flourens: Experimental ablation -> Removing part of the brain, showed that parts of brain have different purposes/functions - Paul Broca: Part of the brain is the central region for speech - Gustav Fritsch -> Electrical stimulation for brain mapping - Hermann von Helmholtz -> Successful measured speed of nerve impulse -> Founder of psychophysics -> relation between physical characteristics of a stimulus and the perceptions produced Dualism - Theory that the mind and body are two separate entities that form the human experience - Physical bodies do not think, are made of physical matter Materialism - Reality can only be known through an understanding of the physical world - Mind is as passive as the body Empiricism - The belief that you can pursue truth through observation and experience - All knowledge must come through experience Strucuralism - First school of psychology -> Wilhelm Wundt - Human experience is built of elemental sensations - Engaging in introspection (looking in) - Introspecion not reliable -> Very subjective process - You don’t see an apple, you see red, crunchy, etc -> add up to believe its an apple Functionalism - Reaction to Wundt’s structuralism - William James - Focused on the process of conscious activity - Why do things happen, why do perceptions occur - Evolutionary standpoint (Darwin) - Biological basis for behaviours - Why do we see the apple? Behaviourism - Began with John B. Watsons: Study of Psychology from a Behaviourist’s Standpoint - The study of the relations between one’s environment and their behavior - Theory of learning that all behaviours come from conditioning - Thorndike’s Law of Effect: Some behavior that causes a good stimulus will be more likely to reoccur, whereas a behavior that is responded with a bad stimulus will be less likely to occur again - Pavlov’s dogs Humanism - Reaction to behaviourism and psychoanalysis - “nice” approach to study of psychology - Emphasizes self growth and realization, choice, creativity, and positive human experience - Belief that humans are innately good - Started by Abraham Maslow Cognition - Studies mental processes, how people think, perceive and learn - How people acquire information - Different from behaviourism because it uses SCIENTIFIC methods to do research - Concerned with internal mental states Week 2: Ways and Means of Psychology Scientific Method – Method of investigation that espouses verifiability and objectability 5 Steps of the Scientific Method 1) Define purpose and formulate a hypothesis 2) Design a study (Procedure) 3) Collect data (Conduction of experiment and observation) 4) Analyze results 5) Formulate a conclusion from results and analysis, develop newhypothesis and share with others 3 Study Designs -> Naturalist, Correlational, Experiments Naturalist/clinical Observation (Case studies, Surveys) - Observation of people/animals in their NATURAL setting or while they are going under treatment or diagnosis for a psychological condition - Least formal type of study - Constrained by the least amount of rules - Primarily qualitative - Cannot control what behaviours occur Correlational Study - observational study in nature, but involves formal measurement of environmental events - Examine the relations of these measurements to explain observed behaviours - Does not manipulate variables in order to study causal events - Do not know about 3 variables (Controls) because variables are not being controlled Experiments - Manipulations of variables and observing results - Only study that can positively identify causal relations among events What Comprises a Good Experimental Design? - Independent variable is of all other variables - Dependent variable should depend on independent variable ONLY - Confounds (3 variables) must be controlled - Having an experimental group and a control group - Samples are unbiased and assignment randomly Selection of Participants - To avoid bias, particpants must be assigned randomly - Participants must be assured that participation is voluntary - Hawthorne Effect: The knowledge that an experiment is being conducted changes the behavior of the experiment - Participants must not know the hypothesis of the researcher - Deception is sometimes used to make the participant not have knowledge on the hypothesis - Deception must be disclosed to the participant at the earliest possible point Validity – How appropriate the operations of a study are to the researcher’s hypothesis Reliability – Operation that produces consistent results Subjective Results – Results that are subject to some sort of evaluation by the researcher Objective Results – Results that are conclusive in their own right, are not in the hands of the research (uninfluenced by points of view) Single and Double Blind Studies - Single Blind study – Participant in which the participant does not know the independent variable, e.g. when you give participant a placebo - Double Blind study – When the researcher and participant do not know the independent variable -> Especially good in subjective studies so that researcher does not bias results towards hypothesis. Example: Having the researcher not know if the participant has received the placebo or real drug. Self Report and ratings measures - On a survey - Participants answer questions about themselves - Self-report is not entirely reliable, has high variability because subjects will answer questions on their own perception of themselves, or how they want to be perceived Generality – Correlational studies have a high generality, because they can be extrapolated to larger groups of the population. Descriptive Statistics - Summarize data in a meaningful fashion - Organization of raw data into a form that is easy to comprehend - Mean, median, mode -> Measures of central tendency - Variability – how spread out the data is, measured by range and standard deviation (the extent to which each scores differs from the mean) - Measurement of relations -> Correlation coefficient, expressesstrength of a relation from -1 -> +1 (0 denotes no correlation) Inferential Statistics - Enable to calculate the probability that results are due to chance - Tells whether or not results are significant - Making sure samples are unbiased - Good experiments have high replicability Psychological claims in the Media - Many psychological claims in the media are backed up by unreliable statistics - Statistics are often incorrect, averages are used incorrectly and data is not normally distributed Ethical issues in psychological studies - Emotional and physical safety of participants - Protect people’s best interests - Ethical treatment of animals - Confidentiality of participants information - Deception and potential effects Ethical Treatment of Participants 1) Minimize harm to participants 2) Maximize benefits of research to participants and society in general 3) Participants should be fully informed about the nature of the research and informed consent must be voluntary 4) Deception is intolerable, except for in limited circumstances 5) Intrusion of private lives of participants without permission is unacceptable 6) With certain exceptions, information will be kept anonymous and confidential 7) Vulnerable populations should be treated with care Ethical Treatment – Then and Now - Wendell Johnson Speech Impediment experiment - Studies received harmful procedures, were not given informed consent, they were deceived and made vulnerable - Medical studies in Africa allowed men with syphilis to remain untreated for experimental purposes Week 3: Lifestyle Stress and Health Cultural Evolution on Lifestyle Choices - Cultural Evolution -> Adaptive change to recurrent environmental pressures - Driven by human intellect and physical capacity - Lifestyle -> Aggregate behavior of a person - Has given more flexibility in lifestyle, allowing for a higher standard of living - Has given us more choices for how we lead our lives - More unhealthy choices due to cultural evolution Nutrition and Exercise - Foods that are high in fats naturally taste better to humans - Diets have changed through time, higher fat diets are common now - High fat diets link to coronary heart disease and cancer - Most people today live sedentary lifestyles - Exercising regularly accumulates less body fat and makes one less vulnerable to stress - Prolonged exercise activates dopamine, reduces blood pressure, decreases LDL’s Health Belief Model - Behaviour regarding health depends on: - Whether someone believes in the health threat - Whether one believes the behavior will help reduce the health threat Cigarette Smoking - Risks of smoking only recently discovered in the past few decades - Passive smoking is related to CHD - Adolescents who have favourable impressions of a smoker are more likely to imitate that person’s actions - Evidence for intergenerational smoking - Nicotine stimulates post-synaptic receptors sensitive to acetylcholine, effecting CNS Health Effects of Alcohol Abuse - Reduces inhibitory controls on behavior - Slurred speech, can lead to unconsciousness and death - More likely to engage in unprotected sex - Fetal alcohol syndrome in babies with heavy drinking mothers -> Retards development of CNS of baby - Heavy Drinkers sometimes suffer delirium tremens; withdrawal symptoms such as trembling, irritability, etc. when they attempt to quit drinking - Many students overestimate how much their peers drink -> otherwise known as Pluralistic Ignorance -> misconception of what is normative Treatment of Alcoholism - Aversion therapy is sometimes used - Less intrusive therapy is used in other cases - Less intrusive therapy consists of: 1) Identifying circumstances for behavior to occur 2) Teaching individual to behave in incompatible ways with the behavior 3) Giving individual confidence he/she can overcome addiction 4) View set backs as learning experiences and temporary - Treatment is only moderately successful (30-50%) Sexually Transmitted Disease - Lifestyle choice to have unprotected sex leads to a host of fucked up shit - E.g. Gonorrhea, herpes, syphilis, AIDS. - AIDS is often transmitted by needles, as well as jizz - Ways to prevent STI’s: Wear condoms, clean needle programs, prevention programs - Alcohol myopia -> When you drink, you still want sex, but risks of getting an STI disappear into the mist. Preventing Unhealthy Lifestyles - Unhealthy lifestyles occur because short-term reward (immediate gratification) out weighs long-term rewards (health) - E.g. you eat a burger and fries, instead of a salad, because it tastes better at the time - Self-control: Behaviour that produces a larger, long term reward, when faced with a small, short-term reward - Self-control requires a prior commitment, to make decisions before - If you wait longer, the immediate benefit of short-term reward will seem to outweigh the long term reward (at the moment of decision) - Self-control known as a limited resource -> if you stay in all day to study, you may later smoke 20 doobies because you have no self-control left Stress Stress -> Pattern of physiological, behavioral, cognitive or emotional responses to real or imagined stimuli that are perceived to be blocking a goal or well-being. Stimuli are usually Aversive and are called stressors Stress can be maladaptive, can produce anxiety, impairing ability. Also, prolonged and chronic stress is maladaptive -> Increases risk for illness Physiological Stress Response - Hypothalamus sends signals to autonomic nervous system - Heart rate increase, blood pressure rises, blood sugar rises, blood flow is directed away from extremities - Breathing becomes deeper and faster - Digestion stops, perspiration increase - Secretion of epinephrine from adreal gland General adaptation syndrome (GAS) 3 stage physiological stress response to severe stressors -> fight or flight response 1) Alarm -> Shock, normal functioning and resistance level is slightly impaired 2) Stage of resistance -> Function and resistance level returns to normal, and then goes to above normal levels 3) Stage of exhaustion -> Loses ability to adapt, resistance plummets to below-normal levels Personalities and Stress - Certain personalities are less likely to be affected by stress and develop CHD - Type A pattern -> Disease prone pattern -> excessive competitive drive, impatience, hostility, fast movements, rapid speech - Type B pattern -> Less competitive, less hostile, more patient, easygoing and tolerant - Type A is more likely to suffer from CHD PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) - After a prolonged exposure to a stressor - Causes low levels of emotion, social withdrawal - KEY CHARACTERIZATION: FLASHBACKS - Severity depends on sex, severity of event, level of educational achievement, past psychiatric illness - PTSD can strike at any age - Excessive use of alcohol is common with PTSD Stress on the Immune System - Stress can suppress the immune system -> Resulting in a greater likelihood of contracting infections diseases - Stress increases secretion of glucocorticoids -> Suppress activity of immune system Cognitive Appraisal - Stress levels are affected by cognitive appraisal of stress -> Perception of situation - Two stage process: Evaluating threat posed by stressor -> If threat is real assess whether resources necessary to cope with threat are adequate Coping with Stress - Life stressors can be measured on the SRRS: Social readjustment rating scale - Problem Focused Coping -> Aimed at changing a stressful situation by eliminating or reducing it - Emotion focused coping -> Aimed at reducing emotional response to a stressful situation - Proactive coping -> Preventing the onset of stressful events Stress Treatments - Aerobic Exercise -> Lower blood pressure makes people feel better - Cognitive reappraisal -> Reappraising the stressor as less threatening to reduce stress -> Shows individual he/she can control stressful situations - Relaxation Training -> Recognizing the experience of stress, attempt to begin relax, focusing on relaxing groups of muscles at a time. (Progressive relaxation technique) - Social Support -> Help that we receive from each other - Stress Inoculation Training Stress Inoculation Training - Developed by Meichenbaum - Like receiving a “stress shot” - 3 phases, 7 steps - Conceptualization phase (of the transactional nature of stress) -> Skill acquisition and rehearsal phase (practicing and learning problem-solving skills) -> Application and follow through phase (Practicing imagery of coping with stressor) - Week 4 – Nature and Causes of Mental Disorders What is a mental disorder? - Abnormal Behaviour -> Means any departure from the normal - Abnormal behavior is not necessarily maladaptive - Maladaptive behavior is the most important feature in a psychological disorder - Diagnosis of a mental disorder should be objective as possible but may never be completely free from subjectivity - 11% of Canadians suffer from mental disorders or substance abuse problem Definitions - Symptom -> A person’s action (crying, pain, nausea) that could indicate a disorder - Syndrome -> Constellation of interrelated symptoms Perspectives on Psychological Disorders Psychodynamic Perspective - Conflict between the three components of the mind, the ego, superego and id - Attempt to make clients aware of their intrapsychic conflicts Medical Perspective - Physicians developed the concept of mental illnesses, illnesses of the mind - Medical perspective today is the treatment of sever psychological disorders on an outpatient basis with drugs that decrease or eliminate symptoms - Based on that mental illnesses are caused by abnormalities of the brain Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective - Learned maladaptive behavior can best be learned by focusing on environmental factors and one’s perception of the factors - Behaviour is caused by the interaction with one and one’s environment Humanistic Perspective - Psychological Disorders arise when people perceive that they must learn the positive regard of others - People become overly sensitive to criticisms and all that bullshit, and then lack internal value of self Sociocultural Perspective - Cultural variables influence the nature and extent to which behavior is maladaptive - What is considered normal in one culture may be considered abnormal in another Biopsychosocial Perspective - Combination of many perspectives on psychological disorders - Diathesis-stress model -> Combination of genes and early learning experiences may cause predispositions for psychological disorders DSM Multiaxial Classification System Major classification of Mental disorders in North America Axis 1: Clincal Syndromes – Schizophrenia, sleep disorders, somatoform, anxiety disorders Axis 2: Personality Disorders: Borderline personality, anti-social, avoidant Axis 3: General Medical Disorders: Infections and parasitic diseases, disease of the blood Axis 4: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems: Problems with support groups, government, etc. Axis 5: Global Assessment of Functioning Scale: Scale from 1-100 of how well the patient functions. 100 is no impairment, 50 is serious problems in function, 10 means impairment that may result in injury of others DSM-IV criteria for a mental disorder 1) Disorder must be clinically significant 2) Disorder must not be entirely external (e.g. sadness from death in the family) 3) Behaviour must not be voluntary (e.g. protesting the government) Problems with DSM - Slightly more consistent with the medical perspective on psychological disorders - Reliability -> Not always reliable, not a cookie-cutter method - Validity based on using categorization -> Rosenhan’s Pseudopatient experiment -> All were surprisingly admitted to hospitals - Must be careful not to label patients by their symptoms Why Classify? - Proper classification in a specific category results in the development in successful treatment of the patient Clinical vs. Actuarial Diagnosis - Clinicians can gather data and interpret them in two ways: Actuarial and Clinical method - Clinical -> Judgments basesd on an expert’s experience; based on the experts recollection of similar cases and on knowledge of the symptoms - Actuarial -> Use statistical rules to relate indicators for particular outcomes. E.g. Used to devise life insurance polices - Actuarial more formal than Clinical Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Criteria - Symptoms must be associated prior to age 7 - Impairment must be displayed in two different settings Characteristics - Marked by the failure to attend closely to details - Tendency to make careless errors - Switch frequently between unfinished tasks - Hyperactive, squirming when seated, excessive running and talking in inappropriate scenarios - Often have a thickened cerebral cortex Causes - Heritable disorder - Insufficiency of dopamine in neural pathways Autistic Disorder Criteria - Must appear prior to age 3 Characteristics - Abnormality of social interaction, failure to use non-verbal behaviours - Little inclination to form friendships - Prefer to be alone - Perform much worse on the “Sally-Anne false belief task” Causes - Really unknown Anxiety Disorders: Anxiety -> Sense of apprehension accompanied with physiological reactions like increased heart rate Anxiety Disorders are MOST COMMON psychological+ disorderin humans GAD: General Anxiety Disorder Description - Chronic worry about everything - Various physiological symptoms - Muscle tension, insomnia, restlessness Causes - Generally unknown, potentially genetic component Panic Disorder (Anxiety Disorder) Description - Feeling of extreme fear and hopelessness - Experience episodic attacks of acute anxiety - Shortness of breath, clammy sweat, irregular heartbeat, dizziness, faintness, often feels like he/she is going to die - Victims tend to suffer from anticipatory anxiety -> fear of having a panic attack - Can cause a phobia through classical conditioning Causes - Could be medical, has a hereditary component - Panic disorder victims breathe irregularly - Sensitivity to danger in their environment Phobic Disorder (Anxiety) Description - Irrational fear of specific objects or situations - Considered phobic disorder only when fear makes their life difficult - Most serious is Agoraphobia: Fear of being in places or situations where escape is difficult (open spaces) -> Most debilitating phobia -> people can often not go out with out having panic attacks Causes - Direct classical conditioning -> Fear once caused an unpleasant situation - Vicarious classical conditioning -> Observing another person show fright towards a scenario or object Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (Anxiety): Description - Defense against anxiety, compulsive behavior - Compulsive behavior demands more and more of their time - Females slightly more likely than men to have OCD - Two types of obsessions -> obsessive doubt or uncertainty or fear of doing something prohibited - Comprised of obsessions and compulsions - Obsessions -> Unwanted, irrational thoughts that patient cannot stop thinking about - Compulsions -> Behaviours that reduce anxiety - Most compulsions fall under counting, checking, cleaning and avoidance Causes - Defense mechanism against anxiety - Taking your mind of your anxiety with something neutral - Some genetic component - Many people with Tourettes syndrome meet diagnostic criteria for OCD Somatization Disorder Description - An apparent body or physical problem for which there is no physiological basis - Hypochondriasis -> Interpreting minor physical sensations as signs that there is a serious underlying disease - Most prevalent in women, much rarer in men Causes - Tends to run in families - Closely related with anti-social behavior Conversion disorder (Somatoform disorder) Description - Physical complaints that resemble neurological disorders but have no pathological basis - Complaints of blindness, deafness, paralysis, loss of feeling Causes - Psychoanalysts point to unresolved sexual conflicts - Behaviourists say that conversion disorder can be learned - People with the disorder often have had other physical problems with which they are familiar Dissociative Disorders - Anxiety is reduced by a sudden disruption in consciousness - Dissociative amnesia -> Patient does not remember/is not able to remember diverse traumatic events in which they are the source of the stress - Dissociative fugue -> Person cannot remember his or her self, or his/her past, will relocate and may establish a new life - Dissociative identity disorder -> Presence of two or more separate personalities, which maybe dominant at any present time Causes - Explained as responses to severe conflicts from intolerable impulses - Or guilt from an actual misdeed Culture-Bound Syndromes - Psychological disorder found within only a few cultures - Example: Koro, when your dick feels like its going to retract into your body and kill you… Personality disorders -> Anti-social and Borderline Personality Disorders Antisocial Disorder Characteristics - Failure to conform to common standards of decency - Repeated lying and stealing - Failure to sustain long-lasting relationships - Lack of guilt - Must have 3 types of behaviours before 15 and 4 types after 18 - Found in 50% of prison population - More prevalent in men - Psychopaths Causes - Lack of ability to become aware of important experiences of life - Hypothesized that unresponsive autonomic nervous system is result - Parenting -> strongly related to the development of anti-social disorder -> parents that are not consistent to their children Borderline Personality Disorder Characteristics - Strenuous Efforts to resist abandonment from others - Intense, short-lived relationships with others - Sudden shifts in self-image, including goals and aspirations - Impulsivity, irresponsible bingeing, spending and substance abuse - Recurrent self-mutilating or suicidal behavior Causes - Modest heritability - Environmental factors such as childhood sexual and physical abuse Week 5 Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders Substance Related Disorders Charactersistics - Addiction to a substance - Can cause social occupational or medical problems - Substance Dependence on the substance - Substance Abuse: Needs to meet one of the criteria: 1) Failure to fulfill important obligations 2) Using substance in dangerous situations 3) Legal Problems with substance 4) Regular use causing social or interpersonal problems - Substance Intoxication: When you’re fucked up when getting assessed. Must be experiencing clinically significant negative effects - Substance Withdrawal: Unpleasant physiological or psychological effects when patient stops consuming substance - Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder – Delusions from consuming a psychoactive substance Causes - Certain drugs activate reinforcement system of brain - Environmental effects - Heredity effects - Withdrawal symptoms make it difficult to break the habit Schizophrenic Disorders Description - A group of psychological disorders involving distortions of thought, perceptions and emotion - Positive and Negative symptoms - Must be characterized by 2 of: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized behavior, disorganized speech, or negative symptoms - Positive symptoms -> Delusions, hallucinations - Delusions of persecution (people are out to get you), Delusions of grandeur (beliefs in one’s power), delusions of control (being controlled by others through a radio) - Hallucinations -> Perceptions of stimuli that are actually not present - Excessive Dopamine Levels Types of Schizophrenia - Paranoid Schizophrenia -> Mainly about delusions. Note: Not always paranoid about being persecuted - Disorganized Schizophrenia -> Disorders, with inappropriate social behaviours, word salads - Catatonic schizophrenia -> Extreme motor disturbances, excitement and stupor. May exhibit waxy flexibility, where limbs are moulded into weird shapes and held for a long time. Also , display negative symptoms - Undifferentiated Schizophrenia -> Have delusions of above 3 schizophrenias, but cannot be classified Causes - Substantial genetic componentto the predisposition of schizophrenia - Identical twins are much more likely to have schizophrenia - Larger ventricles and absence of some grey matter is present in schizophrenic patients - Children born in the winter months more likely to likely to develop - Certain environments will trigger various disorders, such as schizophrenia - Dopamine Hypothesis – Abnormal activity of dopamine-containing neuron causes schizophrenia - Glutamate transmission -> People who take PCP block glutamate transmission -> have schizophrenic behavior, when they don’t have it - Studies have shown that children who have overprotective parents are more likely to develop schizophrenia - VERY COMPLEX CAUSATION Mood Disorders - Shifts or disturbances in mood that cause disturbances in normal perception, thought and behavior - Characterized by depression, or depression and euphoria combined - Bipolar I Disorder – Episodes of mania sometimes with anxiety accompanied by major depression - Bipolar II disorder – Major depression accompanied by less severe mania (hypomanic episodes) - Major depressive disorder – Persistent, severe feelings of worthlessness and sadness - Dysthymic Disorder – Less severe form of depression Mania - Elation and self-confidence - Contradiction or interference makes people angry - Rapid speech - Full of grandiose plans - Restless and hyperactive - Delusional and often have hallucinations - All cases where Mania is present is considered bipolar disorderby DSM-IV Depression - Sad and apathetic mood - Feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness - Desire to withdraw from other people - Sleeplessness and loss of appetite - Change in activity level, to lethargy or agitation - Most people who are depressed have a dysthymic disorder - Severe depression often causes delusions -> especially that they are physically rotting away Causes - Most depressed people are generally negative about themselves - Attribution of negative events to own short comings - Has a genetic component - Lower levels of norepinephrine and serotonin cause depression - Sleep levels effect depression -> Seasonal Depressive disorder -> Days are short and nights are long Week 6 Treatment of Psychological Disorders Early Treatment - Earliest known treatment -> Trephining: Drilling holes into patient’s skull - Most people with psychological problems were put in asylums, were they were treated inhumanely - Phillippe Pinel -> Believed that most mental patients would respond favourably to kind treatment - Dorthea Dix -> Lead the campaign for humane treatment of mental patients Development of Psychotherapy - Anton Mesmer -> hypnosis, alleviated some symptoms of patients - Freud started practice of psychoanalysis - Most modern therapists use an eclectic approach -> whatever methods that the therapist thinks will work at the time Insight Therapies (Psychoanalysis, client-centered therapy, Gestalt therapy) - Assume that people are normal but learn maladaptive thoughts processes - Behavior is a symptom of deeper psychological problems Psychoanalysis - Aimed at providing client with insight into motivations and impulses - Source of conflicts can be routed to sexual and aggressive urges - “veil of amnesia” the moment technique is learned - Free association -> client speaks freely, without censoring any thoughts - Dreams were crucial component - Patient on couch, “and how does that make you feel?” - Interested in unconscious processes Stages of psychoanalysis - Resistance -> Client becomes defensive and unconsciously tries to halt further insight by censoring his/her true feelings - Client beings to change topic, miss appointments, forget what he/she was going to say - Transference – The projection of powerful attitudes upon the therapist (love/hate). Freud believed transference was essential for the success of therapy, due to client reliving past experiences - Countertransference -> The therapist projects emotions upon the client. Undesirable, and unhealthy, client must stay detached Modern Psychodynamic Therapy - Brief psychodynamic therapy -> takes shorter amount of time. - 10-25 sessions - Freud’s method took years to complete Client-Centered Therapy - Humanistic Therapy -> providing client with greater understanding of his or her self - Carl Roger’s developed Client-Centered Therapy -> Client decides what to talk about without direction or judgment of therapist - Roger’s believed that the cause of many psychological problems was the differences between one’s ideal self and one’s real self. This was called incongruence - Patient is treated with unconditional positive regard - Acceptance of the person does not mean acceptance and approval of theier behavior - Therapist displays empathy, and it must be Genuine to be successful Gestalt Therapy (Humanistic Therapy) - Fritz Perls emphasized unity of mind and body - Emphasis on present experience - Quite confrontational, challenging client to be honest about problems - Getting in touch with inner experiences - Empty chair technique -> Talking as if someone was in the chair sitting next to the client Behaviour and Cognitive-Behaviour Therapies - Systematic Desensitization -> Removal of an unpleasant emotional response and replace it with relaxation - Creates a hierarchy of anxiety related stimuli - Slowly desensitize client - In vivo exposure -> Ridding clients of fear by arousing fears at a intense level - Imaginal Exposure -> Imagining as graphically as possible, the most frightening encounters with the client’s phobia - Aversion Therapy – Rearranging effects of behavior and consequences to eliminate maladaptive behavior - E.g. smacking a kid when he takes the cookie from the jar - Overall use is waning - Reinforcement of Adaptive Behaviours - Giving a kid a pat on the back cause he’s cool like that. (He mowed the lawn) - Token Economies - Giving gold stars to the good kids - Modelling - Clients make much better progress when there is access to a model who provides samples of adaptive/wanted behaviours - Assertiveness Therapy - Often used for coping skills in interpersonal situations - Extinction of Maladaptive Behaviours - Behaviour is eliminated by removing previously available enforcers - For example: Ignoring a kids temper tantrum, and not rewarding it - Punishment of Maladaptive Behaviors Cognitive-Behaviour Therapies - Based on changing maladaptive thoughts, beliefs and perceptions - Rational Emotive Therapy - Highly directive and confrontational - Inappropriate emotions can be abolished only by a change in the belief system - Therapist disputes with client that beliefs are inappropriate - Useful for depression Group Psychotherapy - Sometimes more effective - Usually more convenient or economical - Allows therapist to observe actual interactions - Message is more convincing from a group of people with a therapist - Process of seeing maladaptive behavior often gives insight - People learn that they are not alone - Structural Family Therapy - Restructuring of a family dynamics in many ways - Healthiest interaction come from a marital subsystem, consisting of unity from husband and wife, not child-oriented Community Psychology - Address psychological problems through assessment of contexts of which problems develop - Changing the environment to promote mental health - Preventive psychology -> Primary and secondary prevention - Primary prevention -> Eliminating conditions responsible for problems, e.g. giving children educational materials - Secondary prevention -> Prompt identification of problems and immediate intervention. E.g. suicide hotlines Effectiveness of Psychotherapy - It is very hard to assess the effectiveness of psychotherapy due to problems of measurement -> you can’t really measure a person’sdysfunction - Self-selection makes it very difficult to establish a stable sample group - Meta-analysis -> Estimation of the magnitude of experimental effects reported by published studies - Effectiveness in all types is effected by therapeutic alliance -> relationship between client and therapist Drug Therapy - Also called pharmacotherapy - Target abnormal neural and other physiological functions - 4 Types of drugs - Anti-psychotic drugs: Effect the dopamine system -> Chlorpromazine -> first drug - Reduce delusions and hallucinations - Anti-psychotic drugs gave unwanted symptoms -> Tardive Dyskinesia (shaking) - Anti-depressant drugs: Several types of anti-depressants - Tri-cyclics: Block reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin - MAOI’s: Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: Block oxidases from breaking down norepinephrine and dopamine - SSRI’s: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: Prevent reuptake of serotonin -> Have much less side effects - Anti-manic drugs: Lithium carbonate is most effect drug -> poses several dangerous threats -> very toxic when overdosed - Mood stabilizers -> Work on GABA (gamma-amino buteric acid) and inhibit neural activity - Anti-anxiety drugs: Benzodiazepines -> Not a long term solution to anxiety episodes ECT Therapy - Electroconvulsive Therapy - Shocking parents with electrodes - Can be effective in resistant clients with major depressive or severe manic disorders - Controversial form of treatment due to mistreatment Psychosurgery - Example: Cutting out a corpus collosum - Cingulotomies -> Cutting cingulum bundle, between prefrontalcortex and limbic system -> helps people with severe OCD - Must be used as a last resort, and consent must be given Assessment Methods for Psychological Disorders - Clinical interviews - Questionnaires - Behavioural Monitoring - Cognitive tests -> Week 7 – Biology of Behaviour The Nervous System - 2 parts of the nervous system Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - Autonomic and muscular nervous system - Cranial nerves -> Nerves from neck and head area - Spinal nerves -> Information from rest of body Central Nervous System (CNS) - Brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system - Spinal cord -> Long bundle of nerve cells - Composed of two types of cells -> nerve cells and glial cells - Glial cells -> support neurons -> give oxygen and nutrients - Neurons Neurons - Specialized cells capable of sending information - Held together by glial cells Distinct Features - Cell body - Nucleus – Contains genes (DNA) - Dendrites – Where information is received -> Tree like protrusions - Axon -> Carries information from cell to other cells - Terminal Button -> Sites where information is passed to other cell - Myelin Sheaths -> Around axons -> Part protein and part fat -> produced by glial cells -> Insulate axons from one another - Example of Myelin Sheaths: Multiple Sclerosis -> Degenerative nerve disease -> axons no longer function properly due to myelin sheaths being attacked Types of Neurons - Sensory Neurons – Send information from the physical world from the body to the brain - Motor Neurons – Direct muscles to contract or relax -> Brain to Body - Interneurons – Deliver neurons between sensory and motor neurons The Action Potential - Short lived reversal of electrical charge in the axon that allows for the transfer of information in the next cell - Occurs because an unequal ionic charge in and outside of cell - All or None law: Action potentials do not vary in size - Information is represented by a rate of firing and amount of firing axons - Action potential can be sped up with myelin (insulation) Normally: - Outside of membrane is POSITIVELY charged - Inside is NEGATIVELY charged - Resting potential of -70 mV During Action Potential - Ion channels open - Postively charged sodium ions come into cell, causes charge reversal - Causes nearby ion channels to open, sending message down axon After Action Potential - Ion channels close and potassium channels allow potassium to flow out of cell to restore charge - Potassium-sodium pumps pump sodium out of cell and potassium back into cell afterwards The Synapse - Communication of two neurons - Pre-synaptic neuron is the neuron sending message - Post-synaptic neuron -> receiving message - Two types of synapses -> Excitatory synapses and inhibitory synapses - Excitatory synapse -> Neurotransmitter excites post-synaptic neuron - Inhibitory synapses -> neurotransmitter inhibits post-synaptic neuron -> makes it less likely for axons to fire How it Works - Action potential reaches terminal button - Releases neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft (space between button and receptor) - Neurotransmitters are embedded in post-synaptic membrane through transmitters Reuptake - Effects are terminated by reuptake of neurotransmitter - Neurotransmitter taken back by button - Faster reuptake occurs -> shorter the effects of neurotransmitter will be on neuron - Inhibition of reuptake by drugs = Increasing effect of neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters - Most synaptic communication in brain is done by glutamate and GABA Glutamate - Most important excitatory neurotransmitter in brain - NMDA receptor is partially deactivated by alcohol -> why we get blackout drunk GABA (Gamma-amino butyric acid) - Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter - Barbiturates increase sensitivity of neurotransmitter - Anti-anxiety drugs -> Benzodiazepines work on GABA Acetylcholine - Primary neurotransmitter secreted by axons of motor neurons - Deactivation by enzyme acetylcholinesterase - Receptors of acetylcholine receptors Dopamine - Attention , learning, reinforcing effects of drugs - People with Parkinson’s are given L-DOPA - Involved in schizophrenia Norepinephrine - Norepinephrine increases attentiveness in the environment - Att
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