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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 100
Professor
Elaine Power
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology September-15-11 7:55 PM Psychology studies the human mind and behaviour (both applied and academic field) • understand and explain thought, emotion and behaviour Psychology = science of the mind Goal: discover and explain the cause of behaviour Science: seeks to explain the cause of things Behaviour: activity that be observed, recorded or measured (general term) Mental processes • Memory, dreams, personal beliefs • Studied by observing behaviour • primary emphasis is discovering and explaining the causes of behaviour "psycho" = mind "logy"= science Causal events: events that cause other events to occur Reflex "to bend back upon itself" (latin) • An automatic response to a stimulus • Do not require participation of the mind (occur automatically) • Named by Rene Descarte The Growth of Psychology as a Science Rationalism (ancient greeks): the pursuit of truth through reason and logic Animism (turns into materialism) • Physical matter animated by spirits Materialism • Mind composed entirely of matter Dualism (Descarte) • The philosophical belief that reality can be divided into 2 entities: mind and matter Empiricism (John Locke) • All knowledge is obtained through the senses Doctrine of specific nerve energies (Johannes Muller) • Different nerve fibres convey specific info from 1 part of the body to the brain or vis versa • Message sent is an electrical impulse (that was always the same) Experimental ablation(Pierre Flourens) • Provided evidence for Mullers research • Remove or destroy a portion of the brain of an experimental animal • Purpose: to study the functions of that region Psychophysics • Studies relationship between physical characteristics of stimulus and the perception produced Determinism • Idea: behaviour is the result of prior events Law of effect (Thorndike) • Stimuli that happen in consequence of a response can increase or decrease the likelihood that you will do it again Psychology is born from philosophy and physiology 2 concepts embraced in the mid 19th century - these would lead to the objective investigation of the human mind 1. Materialism • The mind was made of matter • (thus) all natural phenomena, including human behaviour, could be explained in terms of physical entities: the interaction of matter and energy 1. Empiricism • All knowledge was acquired by sensory experience • No knowledge was innate • At this time the divisions between science and philosophy were still blurred • These 2 concepts laid the foundation for the scientific approach in psychology • Scientific discipline of psychology was formed by o Experimentation o Verification • Fathers of psychology: Wilhem Wundt and William James o Founded the first psych labs o First guys to study psychology as a science independent of philosophy or physiology • Gestalt psychology o Cognitive processes could be understood by studying their organization, not their elements - Information processing (used by cognitive psychology) o Info received through senses is processed by systems of neurons in the brain History (class notes) • Can be traced back to the time of the early Greeks • Dualism (around the 17th century, Rene Descartes) o The mind and body were two separate entities that interact to form the human experience • Philosophers (before) relied on observation and logic • Psychologists (today) rely on scientific methodologies • Wundt establishes first psych lab in germany (psychology is born) • Structuralism (Wundt) o Describing the structures that compose the mind o Analyses sensation and feeling through the use of introspection, a highly subjective process • Introspection: observe stimuli and describe experience • experimental methods = lack of reliable results • Structuralism --> functionalism • Functionalism (heavily influenced by work of William James and Charles Darwin) • Builds on structuralism --> Looks to explain mental processes more accurately • Big difference: emphasis is on observable behaviours, not on private mental events (introspection) • Searches to understand a species structural or behavioural features o Done by establishing their usefulness with respect to survival and reproductive success • Sigmund Freud (very important guy!!) o Theories: psychosexual stages, unconscious, dream symbols o Founded psychoanalasis and psychodynamic approach to psychology (emphasize the influence of the unconscious on behaviour) o ID, EGO, Superego o Observation and theories based on what he saw (not scientific) • Behaviorism o Behaviours are acquired through conditioning (which occurs through interaction with environment) o You do what makes you happy, you don't do what doesn't make you unhappy o Rewards and punishments guide your behaviour • Humanism o Emphasizes human experience, choice and creativity, self-realization and positive growth o Positive and optimistic view of human potential o Fundamental belief: people are innately good, mental and social problems = deviation from natural tendency • Cognitive Psychology o Studies mental processes (how people think, perceive, remember and learn) o Core focus: how people acquire, process and store info Areas of Psychological Research (12 different approaches to understanding the causes of behaviour) • Physiological psychology o Studies role of brain on behaviour o Nervous system holds the answers o Studies all behaviours in non-human animals to help us understand the causal events in human behaviour • Comparative psychology o studies the evolution of behaviour o Compares behaviour capacities of various species of animals to humans o Ex inherited behavioral patterns like matting, predation and aggression • Behaviour analysis o Studies the relationship of environment to behaviour o If they do something that makes them happy - repeat, if its an unpleasant outcome - no repeat • Behaviour genetics o Studies the role of genetics in behaviour o Examine similarities in physical and behavioural characteristics of blood relatives (similar genes) o Breeding experiments • Cognitive psychology o Study complex human behaviours (perception, attention, learning, memory..) • Cognitive neuroscience o Study the brain mechanisms responsible for cognitive processes o Similar to both cognitive psych and physiological psych o Research technique: study br4ains damaged by natural causes (disease, stroke, tumor) • Developmental psychology o Studies development of behaviour throughout the lifespan o Especially of children o Studies the effect of aging on people • Social psychology o Study of the effects of people on people o Sexual behaviour, attitudes, opinions, relationships.. • Personality psychology o Study of individual differences in temperament and patterns of behaviour o Look for causal events in a persons history (genetic and environment) • Evolutionary psychology o Studies influence of natural selection on behaviour • Cross-cultural psychology o Study of the impact of culture on behaviour • Clinical psychology o Study of psychological disorders and adjustment problems abnormal behaviours) o Most scientists are practitioners (help people solve their problems) while the others look for causes Applied Areas of psychology • Clinical neuropsychologists -->nervous system disorders and injuries • Clinical psychologists--> psychological disorders • Community psychologists --> welfare of individuals • Consumer psychologists --> individuals in the marketplace • Engineering psychologists --> use of machinery • Forensic psychologists --> legal, justice behaviour • Health psychologists --> health and lifestyle • Organizational psychologists --> industrial workplaces • School psychologists --> students in school setting Chapter 2: The Ways and Means of Psychology September-18-11 5:18 PM The scientific method • Set of rules that scientists follow in their research • Allow us to determine the causes of phenomena 3 forms of scientific research 1. Naturalistic observation and clinical observation o Naturalistic: Observing behaviour of people or animals in their natural environment o Clinical: observing behaviour of people or animals who are undergoing diagnosis or treatment • Case study: detailed description of behaviour during the course of treatment or diagnosis • The least formal, constraint by the fewest rules 1. Correlational studies o Examines relations between 2 or more measurements of behaviour or characteristics • Observational in nature but involves more formal measurements • Attempts to explain observed behaviour 1. Experiments o Study where independent variable is changed and observations are made on the dependent variable o Only experiments allow us to confirm that a cause-and-effect relation exists Scientific method for experiments 1. Identify problem, formulate hypothetical cause-and-effect relations among variables • Hypotheses: tentative statement about a relation between an independent variable and a dependent variable --> experiment tests its truth o Come from info gathered through naturalistic observations, previous experiments or from formal theories • Theory: set of statements designed to explain a set phenomena, more complex hypotheses • Survey study: studies people's responses to standardized questions 1. Design the experiment • Independent variable: variable manipulated (to determine cause and effect) • Dependant variable: variable that is measured • Experimental group: group exposed to a particular value of the independent variable which has been manipulated by the researcher • Control group: comparison group, members exposed to naturally occuring or 0 value of the independent variable • Nominal fallacy: false belief that one has explained an event merely by naming it (makes a false assumption) o He is angry (wrong) vs his behaviour is hostile and aggressive (right) • Operational definition: definition of variable in terms of the operations the researcher performs to measure or manipulate it o Specifies the particular operations that will be performed to make the hypotheses' meaning clear • Validity: the degree to which an operational definition succeeds in producing a particular value of an independent variable or measuring the value of dependant variable • Confounding of variables: when more than 1 variable is manipulated --> screws up the experiment, no valid conclusions can be made about cause and effect o Only 1 variable (independent) should be changed in an experiment 1. Perform experiment • Reliability: the repeatability of a measurement • Interrater reliability (favors objectivity over subjectivity): the degree to which 2 or more independent observers agree on the behaviour of another organism o Ex: observing a child's interactions with other kids… easy to be subjective (requires judgment or expertise) if two or more people watch and get the same answers the results become more reliable • Random assignment (best way to select participants for each group): each participant has equal chance to be assigned to any condition or group of an experiment Participants try to figure what the research is trying to accomplish - their conclusions can affect the results Techniques to minimize this: • Deception: tell people that the experiment is about something other than what it actually is about - used to prevent people from guessing hypothesis and acting in a different way • Single-blind study: only researcher knows value of independent variable o If you give drug to participant, it may get to their head and make them act differently o To solve: give pills to both participant groups, make one group take a placebo • Double-blind study: neither the participant nor the researchers knows the value of the independent variable o If researchers ak subjective questions to participants, they may perceive results in a way that favors their hypothesis, solution --> double- blind study • Placebo: inert substance that looks like real medication and is used as the control substance in a single-blind or double-blind experiment • Correlational studies o Assess relations among variables that the researcher cannot readily manipulate (age, sex, personality…) o Design: measure 2 or more variables as they are found to exist, determine whether variables are related by using a statistical procedure called correlation o Ex: shy people day dreams more (shy and daydreaming are measured separately then compared) o Can't determine which variable is the cause and which is the effect o Problem: might miss a variable that affects the outcome • Replication: repetition of an experiment to see if same results are obtained • Sample: take a few members from one group and test them in order to… • Generalization: conclusions obtained from a sample that apply to the population from which the sample was taken o Ex: test a few 5 year olds, generalize conclusions to 5 year olds in general 1. Evaluate the hypothesis by examining the data from the study 2. Communicate the results Ethics Because psych deals with living organism we must study ethics guideline Codes of ethics 1. We should minimize the harm to participants, whether physical or mental 1. We should maximize the benefits of research to participants in particular and society in general 1. Participants should be fully informed about the nature of the research in which they are invited to participate, including risks and benefirts, and their informed consent to participate must be voluntary 1. Deception in research is generally unacceptable, although it may be tolerated under limited circumstances 1. We should not intrude into the private lives of participants without their permission 1. With certain exceptions, we should guarantee participants that the information they provide will be kept anonymous or confidential unless they agree to make it public 2. Vulnerable population (children, prisoners, ill patients) should be treated with special care Sometimes deception is the best option to ensure that participants do not subconsciously participate in a way that would effect the study. If deception is used it is critical to disclose the truth to them with a debrief after the experiment is completed. Ethics then and now - Wendell Johnson • Studied children with speech disorders - stuttering • 70 years ago - harsh study that was made public • Participants sued the study because they blamed not getting jobs on their speech disorders being made public • Today: blinds are used and participants are well informed, info is kept confidential Studies with animals --> must be done in humane ways • Humaine society and other organisations check that this is well done - laws are made • Makes sense because we exploit animals for many more things than studies Understanding Research Results • Scientists need ways to communicate their results to others accurately and concicely • Employ 3 kinds of descriptive statistics o Measure of central tendency, variability and relations • Most common examples: the mean, median, standard deviation and correlation coefficient Descriptive statistics - mathematical procedures for organizing collections of data, such as determining the mean, the median, the range, the variance, and the correlation coefficient Average --> measure of central tendency • Mean: The sum of a group of values divided by their number, the arithmetical average • Median: the midpoint of a group of values arranged numerically Variability --> tell us how groups of numbers differ from one another with measures of relation Measure of variability: how different scores in a set of numbers is Relation --> tell us how closely related two sets of numbers are Range: highest number minus smallest • Not often used because standard deviation has more useful math properties Standard deviation • To calculate: find the mean and then find the difference between each number and the mean, these different scores are squared, the mean of these squared number is called the variance • Standard deviation is the square root of the variance • The more different the numbers are from each other, the larger the standard deviation will be Measurement of Relations • Scatterplots useful to communicate results, but calculation of correlation coefficient is better • Correlation coefficient: a measure of the degree to which two variables are related o Size varies from 0 (no relation) to 1.0 (perfect relation) • Postive correlation: high values on one measure are associated with high values on the other, and low values are associated with low values on the other (positive slope) • Negative correlation: negative slope Statistical significance: relationship between 2 variables really exists rather than is due to chance Inferential statistics: math process that checks to see if relationships are statistically significant To assess significance of results in a study • Perform experiments by observing 2 or more groups who have been exposed to different conditions (each group represents a different value of the independent variable) • Calculate group means and standard deviation of dependant variable that was measured • To determine statistical significance of results o Plug means and standard deviation into a formula and consult special table o If probability of getting these results by chance is low enough, scientist will draw conclusion and say that it had an effect - existence of relationship Lecture 2: The scientific method in psychology September-23-11 7:00 PM •Identifying the problem •Designing an experiment Identifying the problem •What question do you want to study? o Go read, read and talk o Should be shared process - use other people's ideas Method Step 1 - form a testable hypothesis Step 2 - devise a study and collect data Step 3 - examine data and reach conclusion Step 4 - accept (caution) or reject (start over) hypothesis Step 5 - publish Hypothesis •Hypothesis - statement that can be used to predict the otucome of future observations •The null hypothesis, or no-difference hypothesis, is a good type to test •Assumes no difference between states… o The rate of grass growth is NOT dependent on amount of light it receives o What about rain? Test light first, then maybe rain? Then combination Designing an Experiment Know your… •Independent variables - variable that gets manipulated •Dependent variables - changes based on what we did during study •Confounds • Experimental groups •Control groups •Operational definitions - make sure everyone understands what you mean by that Compare experimental group to control group to see whether the groups are different Confounding of variables •We must control our independent variables •Sometimes an unexpected variable, an inadvertent alteration of more than one variable during an experiment is called a confound o Ex: birds flinching at images… depends which they see first! Performing an experiment •Reliability of measurements o Are the measurements repeatable? o Will you get the same result twice? •Operational definitions o Validity of definitions o Who and why Experiment design- does setting affect pain? (hand in 1 degree water) 1. White in chinese setting 1. Chinese in white setting 1. Chinese in chinese setting --> highest expression of pain 1. White in white setting Performing an Experiment • Selecting study participants • Expectancy effects Mesmer - hypnotic guy who healed people by touching them • Used double blind to disprove that his touching didn't actually work o It was mental • Mesmer stopped Why are Research Ethics Important? • Requires informed consent, confidentiality, minimal risk, debriefing… What are the results? • Types of distributions (normal, bi-modal and skewed) • Numeric descriptos of o Central tendency (mean, median and mode) o Dispersion (range and standard deviation) Inferential Statistics: Are the Results Significant? • Are the results due to chance? Are they significant? • Statistical significance is determined by the outcome of statistical analyses performed on the data from a study • Statistical significance: observed relation or difference between 2 variables is not due to chance Lecture 3: What is Health Psychology? September-23-11 7:00 PM • Seeks to understand how psych influences how people stay healthy, why they become ill and how they respond when they get ill • W.H.O defined health as "a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity" 4 main points in health psych • Focus on health promotion and maintenance o Research: looks at how we can get you off your couch and make you active • Prevention and treatment of illness • Etiology and correlates of health, illness and dysfunction • Analyze and improve the health care system and the formulation of health policy • We do behaviours because we chose to do them, we decide it is the right thing to do --> that’s where psych comes in What are the worldwide causes of death? Back then --> plagues and diseases Now -->all about lifestyle and behaviour: obesity, stress, strokes Idea: we have a lot of power to determine our health • Whether or not we exercise Stress • Is an experience, a cycle • Stress -> automatic thinking (shaped by beliefs, attitudes->negative mood (psych symptoms) -> negative physical symptoms (pain) --> maladaptive behavior (pain- contingen resting) --> Seyle's GAS • Assigns a very limited role to psych factors • Only assessed stress as outcome • Assumes that responses to stress are uniform o Personality, perceptions • Stress: alarm --> resistance (until you hit the wall) --> exhaustion What you believe can have a lie in the middle of it Psychological appraisal and stress • Potential Stressor (external event) o Primary appraisal - is this neutral or negative? If negative to what extent is this a threat? (nobody really does this) o Secondary appraisal - are my coping resources enough to get me through this experience • Stress- psychological, physical? What makes events stressful? • Negative events • Uncontrollable or unpredictable events • Ambiguous events vs clear-cut events • Overloaded people • People may be more vulnerable to stress in certain parts of their life Quality of life influenced by: • Biomedical • Psychological • Social • Also affected by pain Chapter 16: Lifestyle, Stress and Health (510-526) September-29-11 11:22 AM Culture Evolution: Lifestyle Choices and Consequences • Cultural evolution - a culture's adaptive change to recurrent environmental pressures • Our lifestyles are the results of the cumulative effects of cultural evolution on our society • While standard of living has improved, we have many more choices nowadays that threaten our health • Shapes lifestyle o Back then everyone had same lifestyle, today there is no predominant lifestyle - we have choice • Healthy lifestyle = Nutritious diet, regular exercise, no use of tobacco, moderate use of alcohol, practice of safe sex and using seatbelts in cars • Recall the law of effect - behaviours that produce favourable consequences tend to be behaviours that produce unfavourable consequences tend not to be repeated o Why do people lead unhealthy lifestyles? Many unhealthy behaviours have reinforcing consequences in the short run and damaging consequences in the long run • Ex: cigarettes pleasurable to smoke but deathly consequences arise later in life Healthy and Unhealthy Lifestyles Nutrition • Bad diet: too high in fat and too low in fibre --> cause coronary heart disease and cancer • CHD leading cause of death in Canada o Cause: serum cholesterol • 2 forms: LDL - promotes formation of atherosclerotic plaques • HDL - may protect against CHD • We like fats because evolutionarily our bodies needed high caloric food such as fat to stay alive Physical Fitness • If you exercise you will live longer and be happier • Best type: aerobic exercise - stimulate and strengthens the heart and lungs and increases the body's efficiency using oxygen Cigarette Smoking • Everyone knows its bad but people still do it o Why? Peer pressure, influence of media.. • Very addictive - nicotine stimulates neurotransmitter acetocholine and exerts powerful effects on the CNS o People develop tolerance to it and their bodies become dependant o Tolerence - CNS responds less and less to drug so you need more to trigger same feeling • People that seek help are 2x more likely to quit smoking (ex: use nicotine patch) Alcoholism • To abuse a substance - use it in a way that threatens the safety and well-being of the user, society or both • Alcoholism - addiction to ethanol (psychoactive agent) • Neuronal activity of the brain becomes suppressed and reduces inhibitory controls on behaviour • 0.3 to 0.4 (10 drinks) -> pass out • 0.5 -> death (neurons that control respiratory and circulatory system stop functioning) • Driving BAC --> 0.08 STDs and AIDS • Aids is last stage of hiv • People need to not share needles and use condoms Self control --> produces long-term reward Stress and Health • Stress - pattern of responses to stimuli that are perceived as endangering one's well being o These stimuli are called stressors (can be real or imagined) • Stress is product of natural selection • Response to stressors is controlled by autonomic nervous system which is controlled by hypothalamus • Stress = biological response experienced as an emotion • When you experience stress hypothalamus sends signal to ANS who then sends message to pituitary gland • Effect o HR increase, BP rises o Deeper and faster breathing o Digestion stops, perspiration increases o Adrenaline is secreted Seyle's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) • Seyle's model --> describes adaptations of the body to chronic exposures of severe stress • Causes 3 physiological stages: alarm, resistance and exhaustion o Alarm - arousal of ANS occuring when first confronted with stressor, shock impairs normal psychological functioning o Resistance - ANS returns to normal functioning, resistance to stressor increases and eventually plateaus at above-normal levels (this stage reflects organisms adaptation to stressors) o Exhaustion - loses ability to adapt, and resistance plummets to below-normal levels, susceptible to illness and even death • •Stress responses only meant to deal with short-term events •Flight-or-fight response - reaction that prepares us for the strenuous efforts required by fighting or running away •Stress = perfect when short term but when long term can have negative effects (can cause CHD) •Those who are exposed to longer term stress have generally worse health than others (holocaust survivers) Physiological Mechanisms Involved in Stress Hormonal responses •Adrenal glands - secrete epinephrine, norepinephrine and steroid stress hormones o Epinephrine releases stored glucose in muscles to provide energy for strenuous exercise o Norepinephrineincrease blood flow to muscles by increasing output of heart and blood pressure • Over the long term these contribute to CHD o Cortisol (secreted by cortex of adrenal gland) is a glucocorticoid • Glucocorticoid - affects glucose metabolisms and helps breakdown protein and convert it to glucose, help make fats available for energy, increase blood flow and stimulates behavioural responsiveness (by stimulating brain) •Most harmful effects of stress are caused by prolonged secretion of glucocorticoids o High BP, suppression of immune system.. •Extreme stress causes brain damage Cognitive Appraisal and Stress •Seyle's findings do not apply to everyone becaue everyone perceives stress differently (ex: some people scared of snakes, others not) •Cognitive appraisal - one's perception of a stressful situation •2 stage process o evaluate the threat - if judged real jump to stage 2 o Assess whether we have the resources available to deal with stress •The answer to these questions determine the level of stress you will experience Stressful Lifestyles and Impaired Health Stress and CHD •CHD caused by high cholestorol levels and high BP •High BP caused by stress •Type A pattern --> increased risk of CHD o Behaviour: high competitiveness, impatience, hostility •Type B pattern --> decreased risk of CHD o Behaviour: lower competitiveness, patience, easygoing Post-traumatic Stress Disorder •Feelings of social withdrawal and low levels of emotion o Caused by prolonged exposure to a stressor (ex: catastrophe) Psychoneuroimmunology •Long term stress suppresses the immune system - not exactly sure why, its complicated! •Psychoneuroimmunology: study of the interactions between the immune system and behaviour •Immune system - network of organs and cells that protect the body from invading bacteria o Derives from white blood cells that develop in the bone marrow and in the thymus gland o Immune reaction - occurs when body is invaded by foreign organisms o 2 types of reactions: chemically mediated and cell mediated • Chemically medicated - involve antibodies  Antibodies are proteins that recognize specific antigens (unique protein on cell surfaces) and help kill invaders  Chains of proteins called immunoglobulin are released into the circulation by B lymphocytes. When they recognize a foreign invader they release antibodies which kill the invader either directly or by attracting other white blood cells • Cell-mediated immune reaction  T-lymphocytes produce antibodies that stay attached to the outside of their membranes  When antigens bind with surface antibodies they are destroyed • Immune system can also harm the body through allergic reactions o Auto-immune diseases - immune system attacks body's own cells Coping with Everyday Stress •According to Lazarus and Folkman there are 2 coping responses o Problem-focused coping: any coping behaviour that is directed at reducing or eliminating a stressor o Emotion-focused coping: any coping behaviour that is directed toward changing one's own emotional reaction to a stressor Chapter 17: The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders (544-571) October-03-11 1:50 PM Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders •Etiology - the causes or origins of a disorder •Psychological disorders characterized by abnormal behaviour •Abnormal for diagnosis specifically means maladaptive - cannot lead normal life Criteria to have psychological disorder •Symptoms must cause distress or impair ability to function in dialy life •Distress must be clinically significant •Behaviour cannot be voluntary Perspective on the Causes of Psychological Disorders • No single cause • In general: caused by interaction of hereditary, cognitive and environmental factors • Psychodynamic perspective o Based on Freud's early work o Psycho disorders arises from intrapsychic conflict that overwhelms the mind's defence mechanisms o conflict produced by 3 components of the mind: the id, ego and superego • Conflict arises from attempts to cope with external dangers and traumatic experiences or from attempts to control potential harmful expressions of sexual or aggressive impulses o Solution: make clients aware of their intrapsychic conflicts and defence mechanism failures • Medical perspective o Origins - greek Hippocrates o Based on model that psychological disorders are caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system o Treatment: treated in the same way as physical illnesses - drugs and medication o Problem: not all psychological disorders can be traced so strongly and directly to physical causes • Cognitive-Behaviour Perspective o Psychological disorders are learned patterns of maladaptive thinking and behaving o Can best be understood on focusing on environmental factors and a person's perception of those factors o Treatment: replace maladaptive thoughts and behaviours with more adaptive ones • Humanistic Perspective o Psychological disorders arise when people perceive that they must earn the positive regard of others • Become overly sensitive to the demands and criticism of others- define their personal value in terms of what others think of them • Feel as if they have no control over the important events in their life = depression o Treatment: persuade people that they do have intrinsic value and help them achieve their own unique positive potential as human beings • Sociocultural Perspective o Focuses on how cultural variables influence the development of psychological disorders and people's subjective reactions to them, o Culture-bound syndromes - phenomenon where psychological disorders exist only in certain cultures o Solution: understanding of cultural issues • Biopsychosocial Perspective o Combines multiple perspectives o Diathesis-stress model - model based on the idea that people's biological inheritance and early learning experiences predispose them to develop psychological disorders o However, a person can be predisposition to a psycho disorder but not develop it. WHY? • Has not yet encountered enough stressors to trigger its development • Possesses enough cognitive-behavioural coping skills to counter stressors that are present The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) - manual most commonly used in North America for classifying psycho disorders • Provides description of an individual's psycho condition using 5 different criteria called axes o Axis I - info on major psych disorders that require clinical attention (include childhood developed disorders) o Axis II - personality disorders • Can classify disorders alone, or can be combination of both (axis I and II) o Axis III - describes any physical disorders accompanying the psych disorders (rashes, higher BP) o Axis IV - specifies severity of stress o Axis V- describes person's overall level or psycho, social, or occupational functioning (purpose: estimate extent to which a person's quality of life has been diminished from the disorder) • Axes III through V - info about life of the individual in addition to the basic classification provided by axes I and II • Ratings made a 100 point Global Assessment Functioning (GAF) o 100 = absence o 50 = serious problem in functioning o 10 = 10 may result in injury to individual or other • Comorbid - disorders that occur together o Ex: alcohol dependance (axis I) can be comorbid with major depressive disorder (Axis I) • Axis I: alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder • Axis II:anti-social personality disoroder • Axis III: alcoholic cirrhosis • Axis IV: severe stress- loss of job • Axis V: GAF evaluation = 30 (very serious impairment of functioning) Problems with DSM-IV-TR Classification • Because system emphasizes bio factors, potential cognitive and environmental determinants can be overlooked • Psychological disorders are not clear cut, they can be ambiguous combinations of factors • Does not pay much attention to sociocultural factors • Cannot associate name of disorder with people because everyone acts differently o Instead associate people with their symptoms The Need for Classification • Labelling those with psycho diseases negatively affects these people BUT • Advantages: can accurately prescribe treatment Prevalence of Psycho Disorders •11% of Canadians have psycho disorders or abuse problem Clinical vs Actuarial Diagnosis •Clinical psychologists often asked to predict people's future behaviours (important for trials, paroles..) •Once data is collected (through tests and such) 2 ways to interpret 1. Clinical judgments - prediction based on expert's experience and knowledge (not very formal) 2. Actuarial judgments -based on numerical formulas derived from analyses of prior outcomes - relate particular indicators (symptoms, test scores or personal characteristics) to particular outcomes •Actuarial judgments have been shown to be superior WHY? o Reliability is higher - decision based on precise rule that applies to everyone (no personal bias) •Despite this people still like to use Clinical judgment because they feel as though actuarial judgments dehumanize the process Disorders Usually Diagnosed in Childhood •Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder o Primary symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity o May be due to an insufficiency of dopamine, although social factors also play a role o Impairment must be displaced in 2 different settings (home and school) o Must interfere with age-appropriate functioning - socially, academically or otherwise o Kids who have this disease are easily distracted and cannot stay focused on task for long o Relative diagnosis - compare symptoms to normal functioning kids •Autistic Disorder o Primary symptom: severe lack of interest in normal childhood activites and abnormal development of social interactions and communication o Do not use non-verbal behaviours such as eye contact and facial expressions o Show little inclinations to form friendships - prefer activities where they are alone o Theory of mind - children with autistic disorders fail to make the connection between their thoughts and their actions Anxiety, somatoform, and Dissociative Psychological Disorders • People with anxiety, somatoform, and dissociative psychological disorders have adopted strategies that have a certain amount of immediate playoff but in the long run are maladaptive •Characterized by pathological increase in anxiety Anxiety Disorders •Most common psychological disorders - affect 12% of Canadians •Symptom: fear and anxiety o Anxiety - sense of apprehension or doom, accompanied by certain physiological reactions, high HR, sweaty hands •Considered psycho disorder when anxiety interferes with day-to-day activities •3 Disorder types: panic disorder, phobic disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder o All appear to have genetic components (except specific phobia and social phobia) Panic Disorder (least adaptive of these disorders - person has no defense against disorder) • Description: o Panic: feeling of extreme fear mixed with hopelessness or helplessness o People with panic disorders suffer from episodic attacks of acute anxiety o Victim of panic attack feels like they're going to die o Anticipatory anxiety - the fear of having a panic attack (people suffer from this between panic attacks) • Causes: o Hard to explain because extremely maladaptive o Caused by either physical or cognitive factors or both o Seems to be passed down genetically from a single dominant gene Phobic Disorder • Description: o An unrealistic, excessive fear of a specific class of stimuli that interferes with normal activities o Object of anxiety is readily identifiable (snake, insect, closed spaces..) o DSM-IV-TR recognizes 3 types of phobic disorders • Agoraphobia - fear of and avoidance of being alone in public places - often accompanied by panic attacks (difference from the other 2 - much more serious and not caused by a specific traumatic incident) • Social phobia - excessive and irrational fear of situations in which the person is being observed by others • Specific phobia - excessive and irrational fear of specific things (snake, the dark…) • Causes: o Phobias learned by means of classical condition • Direct classical conditioning - when you are present in an uncomfortable situation • Indirect classical condition - when you see someone present in an uncomfortable situation o Genetics - through natural selection • We can recognize predators (snakes) or dangerous situations (heights) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Description: o Recurrent, unwanted thoughts or ideas and compelling urges to engage in repetitive ritual-like behaviour o Suffer from obsessions (thoughts that will not leave them) and compulsions (behaviours that they cannot keep from performing) o Affected person is able to recognizes that their thoughts and behaviours are senseless and wish they would go away (whereas someone with schizophrenia does not recognize this) o 2 principal kinds of obsession • Obsessive doubt or uncertainty • Obsessive fear of doing something prohibited o Most compulsions fall into 1 of 4 categories: counting, checking, cleaning avoidance o Thoughts or behaviours that prevent a person from thinking about painful subjects or that ward off feelings of guilt and anxiety o Believed that Tourettes and OCD are produced by the same dominant gene • Tourettes - characterized by muscle and vocal ticks Posttr
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