Table of Contents
• Describe the philosophical roots of psychology.
• Describe the roots of psychology in biology and evolutionary thought.
Explain and compare the major trends in the early development of psychology: Rationalism,
Materialism, Empiricism, Structuralism, Functionalism.
• Describe the development of behaviourism and humanistic psychology.
• Describe the newer trends in psychology including the cognitive sciences and neurobiology.
• Make connections between psychology and other disciplines.
• Summarize how psychology is relevant to many different professions
Has roots in western philosophy
Scientific study of behavior, thought and experience
Is empirical and deterministic:
Understanding of behavior comes from observation. Behaviour is caused by multiple factors Empiricism
(Drive to move towards a scientific approach came from psychologists)
belief that the world can be described by rules created through observations, quantification and the
principle of parsimony or accepting the simplest testable solution for all the evidence.
breaking complex phenomena into their smallest components and then studying the components. They
assume that understanding the components causes understanding of the whole
Examining behavior, traits, and perceptions by asking the reason behind them
tendency to ascribe significance to specific instances of objects
Belief that everything has a cause and an effect
Belief that the world is just matter
Belief that there are properties of life that are separate from matter
Focus on studying only observable behavior
Study of the relationship between the physical and mental representations of the world
Psychological discipline that focuses on diagnosis and treatment of disorders Psychoanalysis
Psychological approach to attempting to explain the influence of unconscious process on behavior and
Nature and Nurture relationships
Inquiry into how behavior and mental processes are influenced by environment and heredity
Psychological discipline focusing on the unique aspects of every individual, their freedom to act, rational
thought, and belief that humans are special
Psychological approach emphasizing the need to focus on perception and experience as a whole rather
Using psychology to address issues in varied settings
Branch of medicine concerned with mental and behavioural disorders and their treatment
Psychological work in the criminal justice system
Psychological work in a school setting with children who have special needs
Study of how biological and environmental factors affect health
Industrial and organizational Psychology
Applied psychology working for business to improve productivity and organizational structure. Week 2 Objectives
• Explain the five principal steps of the scientific method.
• Describe the principles (validity, reliability, generalizability) of good experimental design.
• Distinguish between independent and dependent variables.
• Explain the difference between an experiment and a study.
• Identify the utility, advantages, and disadvantages of correlational studies.
• Describe the proper procedures for the selection of participants for an experiment and their assignment
to conditions. Include the problems associated with participant expectations and controlling those
• Demonstrate an understanding of the following concepts: descriptive and inferential statistics, central
tendency, variability, statistical significance.
Apply knowledge of psychological research, critical thinking, and research design to critically evaluate
psychological claims in the popular media.
• Identify ethical issues involved in psychological research and participants’ rights.
All results must be repeatable
All scientific hypothesis are verifiable
Modern multidisciplinary psychology uses a variety of methods to study mental processes and other sub
disciplines of psychology look for other explanations
i. Research question drawn into hypothesis or statement
ii. A study is formulated and conducted to test the hypothesis
iii. Conclusions are drawn form the data. Then the study is communicated to the scientific
community. Operational Definition
Describes it by how it is measured or observed
Ways to collect data
Watching without influencing
Intensive study of participants
Standardized sets of questions
Descriptive statistic describing relationship between two variables
Strict control over the variables
Two groups compared based on predetermined characteristics
Uncontrolled variables that can effect results
The variable that the experimenter manipulates
Variable that is measured or the outcome of the experiment Subject expectancy test
Experimental participant has expectations or believes they know what is being looked for
Aspects of a study that reveal that a hypothesis is being tested
Degree to one set of results can be spread to other situations, events, or individuals
Techniques used to organize, summarize, and interpret data
Distribution of data following a bell curve
Difference between the largest and smallest score
The range the score deviates from the mean
Most frequently occurring value
Central tendency Measure of a central point of distribution
Number of observations falling at a category or range of scores
Symmetrical distribution with values clustered around a central mean value
Negatively skewed distribution
Curve has a tail to the left of the cluster
Positively skewed distribution
Curve has a tail to the right of the cluster
Degree that scores are dispersed in a region
Measurement variability around the mean
Means are farther apart then expected by chance
Statistical method evaluating if differences among groups are meaningful or arrived by chance
Test reliability of data and apply results to larger population
Collecting observations proposing explanations, developing theories and using said theories to make
Ideas presented as science but do not follow the scientific method
Explanation for a range of observations, produces hypothesis and integrates findings into a coherent whole
Describing behavior as a product of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
Characteristics of Quality scientific research
i. Objective, valid and reliable measurements
ii. Able to be generalized
iii. Minimized bias
v. Can be replicated
Measurement that is within an allowed margin of error and is consistent across observers and instruments
Responses are provided directly by those being studies
Statements describing procedures and measures used to record observations
Providing consistent and stable answers over multiple observations
Convenience samples Samples of individuals conveniently available
Degree that results can be applied or replicated in nature
Describes situations where behavior changes because of observation
Participants don’t know the purpose of the study or treatment
Both participant and experimenter do not know the purpose of the study or treatment
Repeating a study and finding similar results
Story or testimony of an observation or event as evidence
Appeal to authority
Use of an expert to give undue validity
Appeal to common sense
Appears to be sound but has no scientific evidence
Institutional review board
Committee of researchers and officials charged with protection of human research participants
Participant must be informed and give consent
Participants have the true nature of the study with the nature and reason for deception explained Week 3 Objectives
• Explain the physiological basis of the stress response.
• Explain how individual differences in cognitive appraisal affect our responses to a stressor.
• Apply the biopsychosocial model to health, stress, and illness.
• Describe how stress affects the immune system and contributes to the development of diseases.
• Differentiate between effective and ineffective strategies for dealing with stress.
• Describe how evolutionary history influences life choices.
• Describe the environmental factors that influence people to make healthy and unhealthy life choices.
Fight or flight response
Reaction where the bod goes on alert to promote survival in response to a stimuli
Affects everyday health
Brain perceives threats when there aren’t any
Important to recognize stressors to manage them
Chronic stress can increase health risks
Perceived demands exceeds resources to meet them
General adaptation syndrome
Alarm Resistance to stressor is reduces possibly leading to shock
Body adapts, nervous system returns to normal with resistance to stressor increasing to abovenormal
After exposure lasts a while resistance falls leading to possible illness or death
Originates in the brain and extends to where you feel stress the most
Neural and endocrine circuit providing communication between the nervous system(hypothalamus) and the
endocrine system(pituitary and adrenal glands)
Hormone released by the adrenal cortex that prepares the body for stressful situations
Corticotrophinreleasing factor from the hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to release
adrenocorticotrophic hormone which stimulates the release of cortisol
Stresssensitive hormone associated with maternal bonding and social relationships
Study of relationship between immune system and nervous system functioning
Increases chances of Coronary Heart Disease Increased junk food consumption in females
Increased junk food consumption in males
Type A Personality
Impatient, worry about time, easily angered, competitive, and highly motivated
Type B Personality
Characterized by patient easygoing and relaxed disposition
Perceiving environment as beneficial, neutral, or negative
Assessment of coping abilities and whether it is sufficient
Confidence that necessary actions for satisfying results are performed
Better they are the better the results
People believe and respond as if they are receiving treatment
Reduce emotional reaction through exercise, muscle relaxation, and cognitive appraisal. Process of adjusting perception of stressors as less threatening.
Processes used to manage demands, stress, and conflicts
Reducing or eliminating stressful situations
Preventing stress by not letting it happen
Stress Inoculation Training
Giving skills to cope by exposure to negative events
Theory of Planned Behaviour
Explains actions in terms of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control
Scientific method used to study human strengths and potential
Favourable, constructive views on situations and expect positive outcomes
Ability to effectively recover from illness or adversity
capacity to grow and experience longterm positive effects in response to negative events
Therapeutic technique involving the use of physiological instruments to provide feedback that increases
awareness of bodily responses Negative affectivity
Tendency to respond to problems with a pattern of anxiety, anger, guilt o