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Week 15 - 18 Exam Notes

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Queen's University
PSYC 100

DEVELOPMENT Prenatal Development: (Germinal/Zygote Period) • Conception (sperm unites with ovum to produce zygote) • Gamates (sperm/ovum) are haploid (half the normal chromosomes) • Zygotes are diploid • Lasts 8 – 10 days • Ends when cells attach to uterine wall • Zygotic cell divides through cleavage process o Mass is called morula • Epigenetic modification: some genes are on while others are off = different cells) • Stem cells have not undergone epigenetic modification • Two layers of cells form the inner cell mass (embryo) and trophoblast (protects and nourishes the inner cell mass) • After two different layers formed – morula = blastocyst (Embryonic Period) • Begins once blastocyst has implanted in uterine wall (2 weeks after conception) and lasts till 8 weeks after conception • Trophoblast layer becomes o Amniotic sac which provides an environment for embryo o Placenta acts as a filter/barrier: prevents transfer of harmful chemicals and transfers nutrients from mother to embryo and waste from embryo to mother • Embryo separates into endoderm (inner – digestive, urinary, lungs), mesoderm (middle – muscles, bones, circulatory), and ectoderm (outer – skin, teeth, hair, CNS) • Neural tube forms and develops into brain and spinal cord • Heart begins to beat • Sexual development begins – gonads become ovaries or testes (Fetal Stage) th • From the 9 week of conception to birth • Organ growth is completed • 10 weeks – begin breathing like motions th • 4 month – sleep and wake patterns • 5 month – fetus responds to sounds • 6 month – fetus can live if born th • 7 month – fetus begins to put on rapid weight • 9 month – fetus is born Motor Development: (Reflexes) • Reflexes are automatic movements in response to specific stimuli • Some like eye blinking last through life • Some disappear after birth like rooting (when someone touches infants cheek they turn their head in direction of touch, sucking reflex, Babinski reflex (infant fans and curls toes when bottom of foot is stroked), moro reflex (infant throws arms out and grasps if they feel themselves dropping), stepping reflex (Motor milestones) • 5 to 7 ½ months – sit up unsupported • 9 months – pull selves up, stand • 10 months – walk with support • 12 to 13 months – walk no support • 16 months – walk backward or with toys • 2 years – run, kick, eat Cognitive Development: • Piaget noticed children engaged in behaviours distinct to their age and made similar mistakes in problem solving o Schema: framework that organizes information about a person, place or thing o Assimilation: new information is incorporated into an existing schema o Accommodation: existing schema are changed by experiences o Equilibration: schemas are recognized o Stages:  Sensorimotor period: understanding the environment through sensory and motor abilities • Object permanence: the realization that objects still exists when out of sight • A-not-B error: occurs when the object is hidden from baby in location A, then visibly moved to location B, but the infant will still look in location A  Preoperational period: think logically and symbolically • Egocentrism: belief that others see the world the same way they do • Problem of conservation: understanding a transformed object still has the same properties  Period of concrete operations: understand conservation problems, empathize with attitudes and feelings of others, and understand cause and effect relationships  Period of formal operations: abstract reasoning, formulate and test hypotheses, and not everyone reaches this stage • Vygotsky agreed with Piaget and said that culture plays a big role in cognitive development o The use of speech influences cognitive development o Intersubjectivity: understanding between two communicators that allows them to communicate effectively o Joint attention: people who are together focus on the same object in the environment o Social referencing: people take cues from each other when dealing with unfamiliar circumstances o Social scaffolding: people with more knowledge help a child reach a higher level of thought then they could have alone (teaching) o Actual developmental level: skills and abilities a child can show on his own o Zone of proximal development: difference between what child can do on his own and what he can do with help form a mentor • Sense of self: o Rouge test  Began with chips – red dot caused inspection of self  Babies pass the rouge test  Children recognize photos of self o Self concept  2 years: refer to self verbally  3 to 4 years: describe self in physical traits, preferences, relationships, abilities and feelings  8 years: factor memories into self descriptions, make social comparisons  Adolescence: experience conflict in their self concept • Theory of mind: the ability to reason about what other people might know or believe, and how those beliefs and knowledge will relate to their actions o Researchers use false belief problems to test theory of mind  Container test: box of smarties shown to children and they say there are smarties in the box • They are shown that there are pencils in the box • When asked what next person will think is in the box a 3 year old says pencils but a 4 year old says smarties (theory of mind)  Displacement test: • Sally places a marble in basket, Anne moves marble to box while Sally is gone. Sally comes back and 3 year old says she will look in box for marble while 4 year old says in basket o Intersubjectivity: infants will imitate facial expressions of others and follow the gaze of others o Understanding goals of others o Children begin to lie o Executive functioning control impulses, plan actions, foresee consequences, use working memory o Preservation is the inability to stop performing a behaviour Social Development: (Parenting) • Inductive discipline: highlights consequences on others while disciplining child • Baumrind’s Styles: two ways parents interact with children o Demandingness o Responsiveness • Authoritative Parenting o Highly demanding, highly responsive o Less physical discipline o Set and explain rules o Reason with children o Give freedom o Children are socially competent, self confident • Authoritarian Parenting o Highly demanding, less responsive o Discipline with threats and punishment o Don’t explain rules o Children are unhappy, lack confidence, unsure of self, look to authority in moral situations, often aggressive and anxious • Permissive Parenting o Few demands, highly responsive o Little structure o Believe children learn best alone o Few demands to behave appropriately o Children cant control impulses or act responsibly, they react more intensely and don’t do well in school • Rejecting-Neglectful Parenting o Neither responsive nor demanding o Do not set limits o Do not monitor o Discourage children o Only worried about own needs o Children are less competent, anti social, depressed, and engage in risky behaviour (Attachment) • Attachment bond: pre attachment phase, attachment-in-the
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