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Week 20 Exam Notes

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PSYC 100

MOTIVATION AND EMOTION • Motivation: group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength and persistence of individual’s behaviour o Desires, needs and interests that arouse and activate an organism to move towards a specific goal • Intrinsic Motivation: motives that result from an internal need • Extrinsic Motivation: motives based on getting a reward or avoiding an unpleasant consequence (external desire) • Olds and Milner o Showed that electrical stimulation of the brain could be reinforcing to rats o Rats quickly learned that pressing a lever delivered a brief electrical current to their brain o Stimulation of certain brain areas activates the same system that is activated by natural reinforcers and by drugs people abuse o All reinforcing stimuli trigger the release of dopamine in the brain o Neural reward centres in the brain are:  Medial forebrain bundle  Nucleus accumbens of the basal ganglia • We have physiological mechanisms that detect imbalances in needs o Regulatory behaviours: bring physiological conditions back to normal o Homeostasis: way in which physiological characteristics are maintained at their optimum level o Deficits/imbalances motivate us to perform appropriate regulatory behaviours • Regulatory system has four essential features: o System variable – what is being regulated o Set point – optimum value of the system o Detector – monitors the value of the system variable o Correctional mechanism – restores the system variable to the set point • Negative feedback – effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate that action • Drive theory: motivated behaviour results from an internal drive o A drive is a response to some need o Reduction of drive is reinforcing – want to maintain ourselves at an optimal level of performance (homeostasis) • Problems with Drive Theory: o Many motivated behaviours cannot be explained by drive theory o Drive is almost impossible to measure o Many events that we experience as reinforcing are also drive increasing • Difference between drive theory and the incentive model o Incentive model – behaviour is to experience a reward o Drive theory – behaviour is to reduce internal drive • Optimum-level Theory: o Organisms will perform behaviour that restores the level of arousal to an optimum level o When arousal level is too high, less stimulation is reinforcing o When arousal is too low, more stimulation is desired • Two types of exploration o Diversive exploration: response to under stimulation that increases the diversity of the stimuli that the organism interacts with o Specific exploration: response to overstimulation that leads to the needed item • Perseverance: tendency to continue to perform a behaviour even when it is not being reinforced • Intermittent Reinforcement: o Behaviour acquired through intermittent reinforcement is more resistant to extinction that behaviour acquired with continuous reinforcement o Succeeding after several failures causes the learner to keep trying after many failures • Overjustification Hypothesis o Using extrinsic rewards to motivate intrinsically motivated behaviour will weaken target behaviour o Using extrinsic rewards shift the motivation from intrinsic to extrinsic, producing a loss of intrinsic behaviour • Achievement motivation o Outcome expectations – how much do we want the outcome o Efficacy expectations – can we actually carry out the behaviour in order to get the outcome o Efficacy is a better motivator than outcome  Stable ability – ou
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