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Week 13 Exam Notes

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PSYC 100

LANGUAGE A form of communication must have these 3 key properties to be considered a language: • Semanticity: the extent to which a form of communication can meaningfully represent ideas, events, and objects symbolically. o Human language vs. the dance of the honey bee • Generativity: use a limited number of words and rules to generate an unlimited number of sentences o Vervet monkeys only have two calls • Displacement: can convey messages about things not happening right here and now o Humans talk about past/future events Perceptions of speech: • Phonemes: minimum units of sound that convey meaning in language o Phonemic discrimination: perception of phonemes is affected by the sounds that follow them • Morphemes: smallest meaningful units of language o Fastest = fast + est o Free morphemes can stand alone and still have meaning (fast) o Bound morphemes must be attached to other morphemes to have meaning (est) Meaning of Speech: • Syntax: rules for combining words to form phrases and sentences o Learned implicitly o Cues  Word order  Word class: noun/verb  Function words: the/and  Content words: express meaning  Affixes: ing/ed • Word meaning = semantics • Pragmatics: knowledge related to using and understanding language that helps us to interpret what others are saying Steps to comprehension of language: 1. Recognize the sounds/phonemes 2. Identify the words and associate them with meanings (morphology and semantics) 3. Analyze the syntax 4. Interpret the message in its context (syntax, pragmatics, semantics) Speech Production: • Broca’s area: contains motor memories (memories of the sequences of muscle movements needed to articulate words o Damage causes: Broca’s aphasia (cant speak but can understand) and agrammatism (cant comprehend grammar of speech) • Articulators: mouth structures (jaw, tongue, lips) • Co-articulation: pronunciation of one phoneme is affected by what comes before and after it (articulators are preparing to produce next sound before last one is finished) • Categorical perception: allows us to perceive sounds as one phoneme or another when the sound is ambiguous o Infants under 1 year can discriminate between all of the world’s phonemes o 1 year old infants can only distinguish phonemes in their native language Speech Comprehension: • Wernicke’s area: location of memories of sequences of sounds that make up words o Damage causes Wernicke’s aphasia (poor speech comprehension and production of meaningless but fluent speech) Reading: • Scanning: our eye
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