Possible Essay Topics pick up the language and form
• Cognitive errors/bias emotional bonds.
• Sensation vs perception • Cooing: pattern of intonation
• Theory vs framework different than that of regular speech.
• Geneenvironment interactions (high pitch, hyperarticulation)
• Development • Babbling: children experimenting
with making sounds of language
• Research methods – study design • Overextend: kid refers to wawa for
• Behavioral modifications all drinks instead of water.
• Underextend: only referring to his
• Individual differences dog as dog instead of all dogs.
• Importance of social relationships • Vocabulary Spurt: a phase where
• Cultural considerations
children rapidly learn many new
• Treatments words.
• Learning (behavior and perception) • Telegraphic Speech: only the
• Environmental designs vs studies important words are used to convey
• Ethics ideas. (food now)
• Nativism: certain skills and abilities
Language are hardwired to the brain.
• Semanticity: The meaning of phrases • Interactionism: social interaction is
• Generativity: Ability to create new important for language acquisition.
ideas. Neurological Basis of Language
• Displacement: Ability to refer
outside of the here and now. • Critical Period (Genie): ability to
• Phonemes: the smallest unit of learn language linked to age, there is
speech, single sounds. a time window in which language is
• Morphemes: Smallest meaningful • Broca’s Area: frontal lobe, speech
unit of speech (Anti)
• Syntax: The arrangement of words to production
make sense • Wernicke’s area: understanding of
written and spoken language.
• Pragmatics: language in use and the
contexts in which it is used (text
Development of Language • Heritability: amount of variability in
a given trait in a given population at
• Coarticulation: no simple one to one a given time due to genetic factors.
mapping between letters and speech • Genotype: genetic make up
• Categorical perception: our • Phenotype: the effect of the
perception does not accurately reflect genotype with the environment
what is physically present in the causing observable characteristics.
• Polygenic: resulting from multiple
• InfantDirected Talk: talking genes
differently to children to help them • Concordance: the degree to which ball o’cells (blastocyst) with 3 layers.
two people share the same phenotype Ectoderm: becomes skin and nervous
• Epigenetics: the study of heritable system Endoderm: Becomes
respiratory system. Mesoderm:
changes that occur without a change
in the DNA sequence (mutation) becomes the muscle and skeletal
• Behavioral Genetics: the role of system. Embryonic stage = ball
genetics on behavior. o’cells. Fetal Stage: once
differentiation of cells is mostly
• Empiricism: knowledge comes complete.
primarily from sensory experience. • Teratogens: causes birth defects.
Intelligence • Synaptic Pruning: removing of
• Generalized: the ability to complete neurons and synapses, leaving the
most efficient ones.
one task tends to be comparable to • Brain Plasticity: the changes in
the ability to complete other tasks. neural pathways and synapses which
• Fluid: intelligence pertaining to
thinking logically and solving new are due to changes in behavior.
problems. Experience dependent: changes in
• Crystallized: ability to use skills, brain in response to use.
• Executive Function: set of mental
knowledge, and experience. processes that helps connect past
• Gardner Theory of Multiple
Intelligences: seven different experience with present action.
intelligences that everyone has at (Planning, organization etc.).
different strengths: visualspatial, Develops in late adolescence once
myelination of the frontal lobe is
kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, complete.
mathematical. Developmental Theories
• Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory:
intelligence is how well one deals • Learning Theory: conceptual
frameworks describing how
with environment changes. Workings information is absorbed, processed
of the mind into 3 components: and retained.
Experiential / creative subtheory, and
Practical / Contextual subtheory.
• Intelligence Testing: good tests try
to remove cultural and linguistic bias • Piaget
and try to avoid limiting the test to as o Assimilation: The process of
single performance index. fitting new information into
• Flynn Effect: steady increase in IQ
test scores over time. Possibly due to preexisting cognitive
better schooling and test familiarity. schemas. (new info > refer
to previously learned info)
o Accommodation: the process
Development of taking new info in one’s
• Fetal Development: Most neural environment and altering pre
development occurs then. Stages:
Germinal stage: zygote forms into existing schemas in order to
fit in the new info. o Equilibration: the balance o Joint attention: the shared
between accommodation and focus of two individuals on
assimilation. When balanced, an object. (One person alerts
they generate schemas of another to an object via
operative intelligence. pointing or other indication).
o Sensorimotor: infants o Social referencing: people
construct knowledge and use other’s body language to
understanding of the world determine the appropriate
by coordinating experiences choices for their behavior.
with physical objects. Starts o Scaffolding: changing the
with built in reflexes and level of support to suit the
becomes voluntary actions. cognitive potential of the
o Object permanence, AnotB child. More support is given
error: objects can exist even when a child is having
if they aren’t seen or heard. difficulty and removed over
o Preoperational stage: do not time.
understand concrete logic and o Zone of Proximal
can’t mentally manipulate Development: the area of
info. Increase in pretending exploration for which the
and playing. Also tend to ask student is cognitively
‘why’ a lot. prepared, but requires help
o Egocentric: The child has and social interaction to fully
difficulty seeing the develop.
viewpoints of others. • Erikson: 8 stages: Basic trust vs
o Concrete operational stage: basic mistrust, Autonomy vs Shame,
appropriate use of logic. Purpose – initiative vs Guilt,
Thoughts become more adult Competence industry vs inferiority,
like, though not yet Fidelity identity vs role confusion,
developed hypothetical intimacy vs isolation, Generativity vs
thinking. stagnation, Ego integrity vs despair.
o Formal operational: • Bronfenbrenner – Ecological
intelligence is demonstrated Systems Model: looks at a child’s
through the logical use of development within the contexts of
symbols related to abstract
relationships that form their
concepts. Can think environment. Based on biology
hypothetically and abstractly. reacting with family/community.
Metacognition: thinking Changes in one layer affects others.
about thinking. • Bandura Social Cognitive Theory:
• Vygotsky SocioCultural Theory: people learn by watching others.
social interaction plays a o Reciprocal determinism: a
fundamental role in the development person’s behavior both
of cognition. influences and is influenced
o Intersubjectivity: term used by personal factors and
to conceptualize the environment.
between people. o Perceived selfefficacy: a • Affective forecasting: predicting of
sense of control over one’s one’s emotional state in the future.
environment and behavior. • Selfperception theory: attitude
• Core Knowledge Theory: children formation; people develop their
have innate knowledge of some basic attitudes by observing their own
concepts and skills to survive behavior and concluding what
(language). attitudes must have caused it.
• Theory Theory: A person has an • Lookingglass self: people shape
innate theory of psychology to infer their selfconcepts based on their
the mental states of others and use understanding of how others
this info to understand the intentions perceive them.
behind that person’s actions or Selfesteem
predict future behavior. • Betterthanaverage effect: People
assume that they’re better than the
The Sel and Other
• The rouge test: red dot on face, • Optimism bias: People assume
shown in mirror. If recognize self they’re less at risk of experiencing
then subject will touch red dot. negative events than others.
• Selfconcept: a collection of beliefs • Selfserving attributions: If test
about oneself. (academic
grade == good then “I’m awesome”,
performance, gender roles, sexuality) else if test grade == bad then “test
was hard, I’m still awesome”.
• Theory of Mind
• Altruism: part of prosocial behavior.
o Anthropomorphizing: Biological reasons: Kin selection:
ascribing human features to being bros to bros increases the odds
something. that our relatives will survive and
o Automatic/innate: the theory spread genes. Neurological:
is developed automatically Activates reward centres in brain.
through social interactions.
Cognitive: can uphold our view of
o Inferences: ability to self being awesome. Altruism with
understand what is meant by nonrelatives = reciprocal altruism.
pointing. • Reciprocity: tendency to do things
• FalseBelief Test: SallyAnne test. for others because they did
something for us. (Reciprocal
• Displacement Test:
• Selfschema: beliefs and ideas altruism)
people have about themselves. Used • Empathy: understanding another’s
to guide and organize info condition from their perspective.
processing. • Morality: distinction between right
• Selfawareness: conscious
knowledge of one`s own character, • Prisoner’s Dilemma: the test where
feelings, motives, and desires. you have to decide to snitch or stay
• Introspection: examination of one’s quiet for different sentences.
own mental and emotional processes. Logically both would betray each other, but there is a human bias to try does not match with sex.
to work together. Transvestite: Cross dress. Sexual
orientation lies on a spectrum.
Social Development • Kohlberg’s theory of moral
• Parenting styles development: level 1: (pre
o Authoritative: rules, but conventional morality) –stage 1:
explains why. punishment, obedience, orientation.
o Authoritarian: likely –stage 2: instrumental relativistic.
physical discipline, more Level 2: (conventional) stage 3:
interpersonal norms. –stage 4: social;
strict, ‘because I said so’.
o Permissive: Make your own system morality.
decisions live with the Level 3: (superconventional) –stage
outcome, can go too far. 5: social contract on individual rights
o RejectingNeglectful: orientation. –stage 6: universal
Neglecting the child. • Aggression: physical, verbal, mental,
emotional. Point: to express anger or
hostility, to assert dominance, to
• Attachment intimidate or threaten, reaction to
o Secure: attachment figure fear or pain.
• Freud and Psychoanalytic Theory:
acts as a secure base.
o Insecureresistant: children the definition of personality
have excessive distress when organization and the dynamics of
separated from attachment personality development that
figure. Do not use attachment underlie and guide.
figure as secure base. o Id: Unconscious Desires
o Ego: Conscious moderator
child shows extreme between wants and desires.
behaviors such as crying o Superego: Ideal self (white
during separation, falling to knight)
the floor around mom, and o Psychoanalysis: human
even hitting themselves. attitude, mannerism,
Possible traumatic loss in experience and thought are
past. largely influenced by
o Insecureavoidant: child irrational, unconscious
avoids parent and caregivers. drives. Conflicts between
Might not reject attention, but conscious and unconscious
do not seek it. Have intimacy can materialism as mental or
issues in adulthood.
• Gender differences: sex: biological o Free association: patients are
makeup. Gender: cultural or social invited to relate whatever
differences. Identity: one’s sense of comes into their minds during
being male or female. Rules: the analytic session, and to
not censor their thoughts.
culturally specific expectations for • Unconditional positive regard –
each gender. Trans: one’s gender
Carl Rogers: basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of is felt > arousal occurs > person
what they say or do. Essential to uses environment to search for
healthy development. emotional cues to label the arousal.
• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
physiological needs, safety,
love/belonging, esteem, self
• Locus of control: the extent to which
individuals believe that they can
Heritability and Evolutionary Psychology
control events that affect them.
Internal: belief that one can control • Evolutionary fitness: Probability
their life. that the line of descent from an
External: belief that their decisions individual with a specific trait will
and life are controlled by not die out.
environmental factors that they can’t • Heritability: amount of variability in
influence. a given trait in a given population at
• Learned helplessness: a mental state a given time due to genetic factors.
in which one is unable or unwilling • Shared factors: genetics >non
to avoid negative stimuli. (dogs & shared environment > shared
shock floor) environment. This is the hierarchy of
importance when it comes to
Emotion developing as different people. (such
• Discrete emotions theory: there are as diffe