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Objectives Psychology - Complete Notes for the Course

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PSYC 100
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WEEK 13 OBJECTIVES LANGUAGEDescribe the differences between language and communication Language is a method for communicating information including ideas thoughts and emotions Language is differentiated from communication because of semanticity generativity and displacement Language can be defined as a socially agreedupon rulegoverned system of arbitrary symbols that can be combined in different ways to communicate ideas and feelings about both the present time and place and other times and places real or imaginedIdentify the three key properties of human language Semanticity the ability of the system to meaningfully represent ideas events and objects symbolically Generativity the ability to use a limited number of words and rules to combine words into a virtually unlimited number of sentences Displacement the ability to use language to convey messages that are not tied to the immediate contextDescribe the components of language phonemes morphemes syntax semantics and pragmatics Phonemes The basic distinctive speech sounds in a language that distinguish one word eg rice from another lice Phonemes are combined to form morphemesMorphemes The smallest unit of meaning in languageFree morphemes are meaningful on their own and can stand alone as wordsBound morphemes are meaningful only when combined with other morphemes to form words eg Engagement contains the free morpheme engage as well as the bound morpheme ment Syntax Grammatical rules of a particular language for combining words to form phrases clauses and sentencesSemantics The relationship between words and their meaningsPragmatics The social rules of language that allow people to use language appropriately for different purposes and in different situationsExplain how speech is produced and what this might mean for how speech is represented in the brain ie speech sounds are not sequentially produced but the system must anticipate and accommodate upcoming sounds in motor programming at the same time as current sounds are being articulated Articulators Mouth structures that make speech sounds jaw tongue lips and soft palateSpeech requires very rapid movements of the articulators Theyre so fast that the articulators are getting ready to produce the next sound before the last one is finished Coarticulation Speech sounds for words are not produced in a discrete sequence Instead the articulators are effectively shaping multiple sounds at any moment in time so that different instances of a particular phoneme eg b are acoustically different depending on the sounds preceding and following themCoarticulation means that information about speech sounds is spread over time and that information about different sounds overlaps in time Coarticulation also means that the sound associated with an phoneme varies depending on its contexton the other sounds preceding and following it Discuss the categorical perception of phonemes Categorical perception the tendency of perceivers to disregard physical differences between stimuli and perceive them as the same such that a continuous change in a physical attribute is perceived not as continuous but as a discrete change at a category boundaryDiscriminating between adjacent items in a set of stimuli that you perceive categorically depends crucially on whether you perceive those adjacent stimuli as the same thing or as different thingsAuditory categorical perception depends on your ability to ignore acoustic variability in speech sounds that is irrelevant in your language while making use of meaningful variability to distinguish phonemeseg Lake lake lake lake rake rake rake rakeTelling the difference between the last stimulus you heard as lake and the first one you heard as rake is much easierIdentify the skills required in learning how to read First they learn the letters of the alphabet and the sounds they can make Second they begin to analyze phonemes in ways that are not required for language comprehension phonemic awareness The ability to recognize words with the same ending sounds eg cat bat mat or vowel sounds eg bike time fine isnt necessary for understanding spoken language but its important when learning that certain sounds are spelled certain ways Take together alphabetic knowledge and basic phonemic awareness form the foundation for beginning to read phonetically Describe the sequence of language development milestones cooing babbling single word and two word stage Cooing Sometime around the ages of 8 to 10 weeks infants begin cooing making their first speechlike sounds These often take the form of long drawnout vowelsooh or aahor blowing bubbles or smacking lips During this time infants will make sounds with their mouths seemingly for their own amusement Babbling The next phase in the infant development of speech is called babbling This occurs around seven months of age with some variability when infants begin to mix consonant and vowel sounds These sounds usually take the form of bababa resulting in the premature excitement of their parents mama or dadaSingle word Most infants will produce their first discernable word between the ages of 10 and 15 months Two word Telegraphic speech at 18 months eg I hungryTelegraphic speech Speech that sounds very much like a telegram with only essential words has words arranged in an order that makes sense and contains almost all nouns and verbs strung together in pairsInterpret what under and overextension and overgeneralization tell us about how children learn language Overextend Generalize known words to a wider variety of contexts than is appropriate for those words eg referring to any man he or she sees as dadaUnder extend Limit context for generalized words to a certain specific meaning eg the word ball may mean specifically their ball and not refer to any other spherical toys
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