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PSYC 100
Jill L Atkinson

Week Thirteen: Language Describe the differences between language and communication. Language: Method of communication information including ideas, thoughts and emotions. Must have semantics, generativity and displacement. Communication:Animals use verbal and physical cues to express something. Difference:All animals communicate but very few animals use language. Identify the three key properties of human language. Semanticity: symbols; extent that communication can meaningfully represent ideas, events and object symbolically Generativity: Ability to combine a limited amount of words and rules to generate an unlimited number of sentences Displacement: Can convey messages about things that do not take place here or now Describe the components of language: phonemes, morphemes, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Phonemes: Basic distinctive speech sounds that distinguish one word from another Morphemes: Small meaningful unit of language Two Types of Morphemes: Free (stand alone and have meaning) and bound (must attach to another morpheme to have meaning) Syntax:All languages have syntax and grammar and follow certain principles and rules Semantics: Relationship between words and meanings Pragmatics: Knowledge of the world that help to communicate and comprehend Explain how speech is produced, and what this might mean for how speech is represented in the brain. From Brain Mechanisms to Speech Production: How we speak… Brain 1-Form idea, decide to speak 2-Chose meaning 3-Apply syntax and morphology 4-Map words onto motor sequences 5-Move mouth, teeth, tongue etc. (articulators) 6-Acoustic signal Mouth How we understand speaking… 1-Analyze syntax 2-Recognize words and associates meaning 3-Map sounds onto phonemes and syllables 4-Analyze acoustic signal 5-Acoustic signal *Speech sounds not sequentially produced *System must anticipate/accommodate upcoming sounds in motor programming *All at same time as current sounds are being articulated Discuss the categorical perception of phonemes. Categorical Perception: -Depends on knowledge and experiences -Allows us to perceive sounds as one phoneme or another -Tend to hear speech sounds as members of a category Categorical Perception of Phonemes: Infants: up until the age of 1 an infant can distinguish between all of the world’s phonemes 1 year: Children can only distinguish phonemes in their native languages *Like perception, the brain learns to discard unneeded information Identify the skills required in learning how to read. Scanning: -Eyes make saccades when reading -Fixate more on content words than function words -Less frequent words have more fixations Phonetic and Whole Word Recognition: 1- Phonetic Reading- sound out unfamiliar words slowly 2-Whole Word Reading- recognize familiar words as whole just by seeing them Describe the sequence of language development milestones. 0-2 Months: crying 1-2 Months: cooing 6-7 Months: speech reflect adults speech using consonants and vowels 1 Year: first words using soft vowels and stop consonants (p, b) 18-20 Months: spurt in vocabulary learning and use of telegraphic speech (only part of message conveyed 5-6 Years: use of full grammatical sentences, 10,000+ words Interpret what under- and over-extension and overgeneralization tell us about how children learn language. Under-extension: use of one word for a larger amount of items than is appropriate -Irregular verbs “I falled down” Over-extension: use of a word for a smaller amount of items -“Ball” for toy vs. “ball” for orange Overgeneralization: incorrect words used base on other languages rules -Only calling your pet “dog” and not other dogs *Infants have a problem deciding which object words refer to when they are surrounded by so many possibilities Describe theories of language acquisition. Nativist Interationist Chomsky Main Argument: Main Argument: -Children are born with innate knowledge of grammar -Language development comes from social environment and experience -Language is too complex to be a product of environmental learning alone -Language development is linked to cognitive development -Grammar comes from growing vocab and is used to organize and simplify a complex system Evidence: Evidence: -Only humans can have such a complex language -Prepared to learn the language we are born into -FOXP2 gene mutation found only in humans -Critical periods in first years of life Main Components: Main Components: Critical Periods -Specific times humans must be exposed to certain tasks to develop normally Relation to word learning and grammatical development: Relation to word learning and grammatical development: -No learning involved -Infants around 18 months begin to show ability to reason about objects that are not -Children have no control over the growth of their linguistic understanding present and begin to use language based around displacement -Just need exposure to words for linguistic growth Language Learning inAtypical Environments: Language Learning inAtypical Environments: Isolated Children: Genie Deaf babies -Isolated until 13 -Go through many similar stages as hearing babies when they are learning sign -Severe developmental delays language -Cannot be made up for -Cooing is verbal, the rest usesASL -Cannot develop normally Bilingual children Nicaraguan Sign Language -Learn both languages effortlessly -School of deaf children and teachers -Meet milestones around the same time as monolingual children but tend to have -Made own language native accents -The younger the student, the quicker NSL was picked up and the more they understood Interpret outcomes of animal language learning studies with respect to animals’capacity to develop language-like system of communication and the uniqueness of the human capacity for language. Washoe: between ages 2 and 7 learnedASL, could name objects and use syntax but not generativity Kanzi: chimp trained to respond to spoken language by pressing symbols on a screen to make sounds Alex: parrot learned 150 words, bigger smaller, named objects etc. Clever Hanz: appeared to be able to count but actually picking up visual cues from trainer *Language is unique to humans because only we have brains that can use it *Chimps lack articulatory apparatus to physically make speech Week Fourteen: Personality Define DNA, genes, and chromosomes. DNA: strands of sugar and phosphate connected by rungs of nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine) Genes: instruct proteins to affect behavior -3 nucleotide bases 1 amino acid = protein -The type of protein depends on the structure of the gene and the environment Chromosomes: contain DNA -23 chromosomes from each parent -46 in total to create fetus Two Types of Chromosomes: 1-Sex pair or chromosomes containing male or female characteristics -XX female, XY male 2-Autosome all other chromosomes Differentiate genotype and phenotype. Genotype: genetic makeup of trait Phenotype: physical expression of trait Describe dominant and recessive traits including homozygous and heterozygous alleles. Homozygous -2 of the same alleles on both mom/dad chromosomes -Recessive trait individual is homozygous for the trait -Both alleles are for blue eyes Heterozygous -2 alleles are different -Dominant trait individual is heterozygous for the trait -One allele for blue eyes and one allele for brown -Brown is dominant Define polygenic inheritance. -Degree of similar traits being expressed, causes continuum of behavior -Different environments influence the expression of polygenic traits -Not a single gene Explain how behavioral genetics are studied. Mendelian Trait: trait showing dominant or recessive pattern of inheritance Non-Mendelian Trait: Usually polygenic and show continuous variation in the phenotype Artificial Selection: -Any heritable trait can be selected in breeding -Maze bright and dull rats maze learning/intelligence can be manipulated Discuss whether it is possible to separate the influences of nature and nurture on development. Nativist (nature) - We are born with behavior -In our genes Empiricism (nurture) -Experience interaction with environment *The environment affects Gene expression *Behavior = nature + nurture *Cannot be separated Describe some of the misconceptions about heritability. - Explain what intelligence is and how it is measured, as well as some of the controversies surrounding intelligence testing. Intelligence -A persons ability to learn and remember information, recognize concepts and relations and apply information to their own behavior in an adaptive ay Measuring Intelligence DifferentialApproach: Galton -Measures individual differences in knowledge and ability to solve problems -Suggest intelligence is heritable Binet-Simon Tests -Measures psychological abilities -Assesses children with and without disabilities -Estimates level of intelligence expected for an average child of a particular age IQ Test: Stanford-Binet -Measures intelligence using an IQ score -If mental age is equal to chronological age then the child has an average intelligence WAIS/WISC: Wechsler -Intelligence made up of multiple abilities -Measures a number of subcategories -Test is divided into 2 major categories verbal and performance ControversiesAround Intelligence Testing -Culture based -Difficult to make a bias-free test because test markers are raised within a specific culture -Chronological age increases and mental age eventually stops -Intelligence can’t be based on 1-2 scores -Needs to be reliable and valid Define the concept of “g”. -General factor -Accounts for moderate correlations among different traits *Spearman’s two-factor theory Compare fluid vs. crystallized intelligence and explain how they change with age. *Cattell Fluid: “Gf” -Culture free tasks -Ability to see relations between objects -Potential ability to learn and solve problems -Decreases with age -How well you learn from your environment Crystallized: -Defined by culture-dependent information -What you have accomplished with fluid intelligence Define mental age and intelligence quotient. MentalAge: -Correlation between the average intelligence and a chronological age Intelligence quotient: -Used in Stanford-Binet tests -Tests IQ IQ = Mental age/Chronological age X 100 Discuss the heritability of intelligence and explain why heritability seems to increase with age. Heritability of Intelligence: -We inherit genes that influence development of intelligence -Genes are most important in determining intelligence Heritability Increase with Age: -In childhood there is a .45% increase in IQ -In adolescence there is a .75% increase in IQ -Environment plays an important role in the development of intelligence -Environments are chosen for children but adults can chose their own -Environment becomes less distinct from genetic influence Discuss the controversy surrounding ethnic differences in IQ scores. -IQ scores were created in Western society -Many people who were not brought up in Western society fail the test -IQ tests focus on subjects and ideologies that are not universally accepted Week 15: Development Describe the stages of prenatal development (zygote, embryo, fetus). Prenatal Development: Germinal Zygote Period: -Conceptionsperm unites with ovum to produce zygote -Ovum and sperm are haploid; they come together to make a zygote, which is diploid -8-10 days long -Ends when cell attaches to uterine wall -Zygotic cells divide multiple times through a process called cleavage -After many instances of cleavage the mass is called a morula Embryonic Period: -2 weeks after conception, blastocyst is implanted on the uterine wall -Lasts until 8 weeks after conception -Trophoblast becomes two parts -Amniotic sac constant environment for embryo - Placenta filter and barrier, prevents harmful chemicals from entering, prevents mix of child/mothers blood, transfer -Embryo separates into three layers -Endoderm (inner) digestive system, urinary tract, lungs -Mesoderm (middle)muscles, bones, circulatory system -Ectoderm (outer) skin, hair, teeth, CNS and brain and spinal cord through neurolation -Heartbeats and body structure forms -Most susceptible to teratogens (anything that can cause a birth defect) -Beginning of sexual development gonads turn into ovaries (estrogen) or testes (testosterone) -Development in two patterns -Cephalocaudel head to toe -Proximodistal inside to out -Programmed cell death begins (apoptosis) Fethl Stage: -9 week after conception, organ growth is complete -10 weeks muscle and nerve development triggers breathing motions -4 month-Sleep/wake patterns -5 month-fetus responds to sound th -6thonth-fetus can live if born prematurely, decrease in spontaneous movement, develops tatse -7 month-weight rapidly increases until birth -9 month-birth Describe prenatal brain development (neural tube differentiation, cell migration; role of teratogens). Neurogenesis growth of new neurons Neuromigration neurons follow genetic instructions for movement and reorganize themselves Teratogens: Alcohol crosses placenta and effect embryo, responsible to FASD, leads to mental retardation Cigarettes nicotine leads to abnormal placenta development, reduces oxygen in fetus, babies at risk for SIDS, lower IQ, premature birth, behavioral problems Prescription Drugs Thalidomide- created to prevent nausea but cause babies to be born with missing or stunted limbs Disease Rubella- placenta prevents most diseases from affecting fetus although some still do Describe prenatal perceptual/behavioral development (role of experience in hearing/vision (de Casper & Spence in auditory perception); rest/activity cycles). Define reflexes providing definitions of key reflexes. Reflexes: -At birth most movements are reflexes -Automatic movements in response to specific stimuli, some last throughout life (blinking) -Some disappear shortly after birth Rooting touch cheek, head moves, mouth opens Sucking suck when something is placed in mouth Babinski foot touched, fans toes, curls foot Describe the development of reaching/grasping. -Birth- 3 months palm is touched, grasp -Pre-reaching poorly guided arm movements when interesting objects enters sight -3 Months grasping is not intentional -7 months Smooth and accurate reaches Describe motor milestones and role of experience in achieving them. *Indicates typical development *Development differs between cultures 5-7.5 Months unsupported sitting 9 months pull self up and stand up with support 10 months walk with support 12-14 months walk back wards and walk with toys 2 years run, kick and eat with utensils Describe physical changes in adolescence (puberty, hormones, sexual characteristics). Puberty: -Marks transition from childhood to adulthood -Hypothalamus instructs pituitary gland to secrete hormones that stimulate gonads, which also secrete hormones -Males produce more testosterone and females produce more estrogen (females develop before males) Sex Hormones: -Cause development of primary and secondary sex characteristics Primary maturation of genetalia and ova, production of sperm- essential to reproduction ability Secondary physical changes- males (muscles, facial hair, deeper voice) and females (breaths grow and hips widen) Describe CNS development in childhood and adolescence. CNS Development: Neurogenesis growth of new hormones, complete after 18 weeks Synaptogenesis few synapses when we are born, formation of new synapses (prenatal- first year), most synapses at 12 years Pruning: -Selective elimination of synapses -Eliminate unnecessary ones to increase efficiency -From infancy to adolescence -Neurons undergo apoptosis Myelinization: -Development of myelin sheaths around neurons (from birth to early adulthood) -Last area in brain to be myelinated is areas important for controlling impulses, planning, foreseeing consequences and working memory Late Maturation of Executive functioning Regions: -Category of cognition controls and regulates behavior -Tasks that require executive functioning are the last to be mastered Brain Plasticity: Synaptic plasticity some neurons shed connections if there is a low activity level, connections kept reflect what we use Experience dependent plasticity neurons create new or stronger connections Experience expectant plasticity development of brain is guided by typical experiences that will take place in the environment we develop in Identify key cognitive changes in adulthood. 1-Telomere shortening the shorter they are the more quickly you will age 2-ChronologicalAge 3-Oxidative StressOxidants damage DNA 4-GlycationGlucose binds to and inhibits DNAproteins and lipids Dementia: -Normal aging but cognitive decline -Mild cognitive impairment (memory) -Dementia- severe impairments in 2(+) cognitive domains and functional decline -Memory impairment (new or old) -1 or more of the following disturbances:Aphasia (language), aproxia (motor activities), agnosia (failure to recognize objects), or failure of executive functioning (planning, organizing, sequencing, abstracting) Cognitive Differences: -As age increases fluid intelligence decreases but crystallized intelligence stays the same Cognitive Disorders: *Increase in age means an increase in cognitive disorders Dementiadecline in mental functioning Parkinson’stremors, loss of spontaneous movements, dementia-like cognitive effects Strokesdisruption of oxygen to the brain Explain the functional significance of the nature and timing of developmental changes. Middle Age: -Muscle strength peaks during late 20s-early 30s and deteriorates after -Late 40s- early 50s sensory experience declines -Woman’s peak fertility is between the ages of 20-25 and it decreases between 30 and 50 Menopause: -End of menstruation and fertility in early 50s -Depends on health, socioeconomic status and past events -Characterized by changing hormones hot flashes, mood swings, sex and sleep difficulties -No male equivalent -Males produce less sperm as they age and may have difficulty with sexual arousal Week 16: Major Theories of Developmental Psychology Compare and contrast the major theories and frameworks of human development. Theory/Theorist Components Compare/Contrast Role of Environment Classical Conditioning *Conditions that predict a significant event will happen -Social and Physical environment Watson/Rayner are present -Display response normally elicited by ones stimulus that comes to be controlled by another stimulus -Cause and effect relations between environmental events Piaget *Four development stages -Physical environment based *Importance of psychical environment -Children engage in behaviors distinctive to their age and make the same mistakes while problem solving -Must be a sequence of learning that all children follow Socio-Cultural *Emphasized social environment -Piaget would see this as -Based on social environment Vygotsky *Environment + culture + interactions + use of speech egocentric Intersubjectivity understanding between 2 communicators that allows them to communicate Actual Development effectively Level Joint Attention people who are together focus on the same object in the environment -Piaget would see this as Social Referencing people take cues from each other when deal with unfamiliar circumstances the limit of a child’s skill Social Scaffolding people with more knowledge help child reach higher though level than they -Vygotsky says that can alone skilled mentor could help Actual Development Level skills and abilities child can do on their own a child achieve a higher Zone of Proximal development what child can do, do with help/limit of abilities, tasks not yet level of abilities in child’s ability Psycho-social *Lifespan- 8 stages defined by crisis resolutions within developing child and how they deal -Based on social environment -Erikson with their environment *If the outcome is negative/not resolved it is unhealthy and impairs development 1-Trust/MistrustInfant relies on caregiver 2-Autonomy/Self Doubt child interacts with environment, exploration may be punished (self doubt) 3-Initiative/Guilt child meets goals and takes personal initiative 4-Competency/Inferiority Child enters structured schooling 5-Identity/Role Confusion Adults forming own identity 6-Intimacy/Isolation learn to share selves with others 7-Generativity/Stagnation longest stage, build family 8- Integrity/Despair coping with prospect of death, sense of contentment for accomplishments Identity Development *Erikson’s identity crisis for teens with 4 -Plays off of Psycho-social -Based on social environment Marcia outcomes Crisis Yes Commitment Yes Identity achieved No Moratorium IdentityAchieved resolved crisis, considered solutions, committed to an action Foreclosure no crisis yet but are committed (still exploring options) Moratorium crisis unresolved, not committed (still exploring options Identity Diffusion no crisis, not committed Ecological Systems *Existence within overlapping systems making up ecological system -Based on social environment Bronfenbrenner 1-Microsystem relationship with immediate surroundings 2-Mesosystem connections between relations in microsystem 3-Exosystem not experienced directly, still affected 4-Macrosystem larger social constructs 5-Chronosystem historical changes that influence development Social-Cognitive *Children learn through observation -Based on observation of social Bandura environment -Environment has affect on child -Child influences environment -Environment seeks child directly Core Knowledge *Mechanisms in mind predispose humans to learn specific skills quickly -Predisposition to learning -Children have more successful tools than older theories suggest -Mechanisms in brain at birth allow babies to learn and understand skills quickly Theory-Theory *Children learn and develop knowledge in the same way scientists do -Continuous creation and revision of hypothesis - Form hypothesis about world, test it, draw conclusions to support or change it -Believe children have informal theories about biology, physics and psychology Apply learning theory to developmental psychology. Theory/Theorist Learning Theory Psychological Development Operant Conditioning and *Reinforcement and punishment -More difficult to stop behavior that has been Intermittent Reinforcement *People repeat rewarded behavior (reinforcement) and intermittently reinforced than behavior that is Skinner avoid unfavorable outcomes (punishment) constantly reinforced -Intermittently reinforced behavior is not always -Positive reinforcement/punishment rewarded which affects the expectations of the -Negative reinforcement/punishment reinforcement -We reinforce unwanted behavior in children by giving -Receiving attention is a powerful reinforcer for young into their demands children -If we want the behavior to stop we must provide -Children act out in hopes of receiving negative intermittent reinforcement of the demanding behavior attention Classical Conditioning *Conditions that predict a significant event will LittleAlbert Watson/Rayner happen -Baby between 8-11 months -Presented with uninteresting stimuli -Display response normally elicited by ones stimulus -Presented baby with rat/accompanied noise that comes to be controlled by another stimulus -Albert came to fear the rat -Cause and effect relations between environmental -Began generalizing fear with other white or fluffy events things Social-Cognitive Reciprocal Determinism Bobo Doll Bandura -Environment has affect on child -Emphasized imitation and observation as primary -Child influences environment means of learning in children -Environment seeks child directly -Actor shows aggression and child will show it too Evaluate Piaget's theory of human development and differentiate among Piaget's 4 stages of development. Human Development Theory: *Schemata must be reorganized for a child to progress to next stage of development Assimilation new information incorporated into existing schema Accommodation existing schema changed by new experiences EquilibrationAssimilation and accommodation fail to adjust, schemas are radically reorganized Four Stages of Development: Sensorymotor First 2 Years *Builds understanding of environment through sensory and “Object Permanence” motor activity -8 months- realization that objects still exist when out of sight A-Not-B Error: -8 months-1 Year- object visibly moved from locationA to B, child will still look in locationA Invisible Displacement Task: -Pass between 18 months and 2 years- object placed in one container then visibly moved to another, child looks in first container Deferred Limitation: -Infant will imitate others behaviors long after they first saw it Perceptional 2-7 years *Rapid development of logical and symbolic thinking and Egocentrism: language -Childs belief that others see the world as they do -Child will cover eyes and assume they cannot be seen Conservation Problem: -Understanding transformed objects still have the same properties Concrete Operations 7-11 years *Learn to conserve, analyze, empathize, understand relations Can’t Understand/Solve: and concrete reasoning “Judy is taller than Frank, Frank is taller than Carl. Who is taller- Judy or Carl?” Formal Operations 11-Adulthood *More capable of abstract reasoning and logics -Less egocentric than earlier stages -Not everyone reaches this stage -Some adults only show formal operation thinking in an area of expertise Identify the characteristics of a good theory -Based on factual evidence -Creates new knowledge -Can be disproved, is falsifiable -Explains phenomena -Must be testable Week 17: Self and Others,AComparative Perspective The Self Describe how the rouge test is used to reveal a sense of self. -If an animal can acquire that it is themselves in the mirror then they have accomplished sense of self 15-24 months babies are able to pass test 30 months children can recognize pictures of themselves Describe findings of animal research on sense of self. -Ability to see self in mirror is only seen in few other species besides humans -Chimps found to pass rouge test -Monkeys cannot pass the rouge test Development and changes in a sense of self across the course of childhood and adolescence. Age Contribution of Language to Development Development and Changes in Sense of Self 2 Years Verbally refer to self 3-4 Years Describe self physically Overestimate abilities 8 Years (+) Discuss memories and social comparisons Factor memories into self descriptions and make social comparisons Adolescence Discrepancy in language Experience conflict with self concept, feel imaginary audience, discrepancy in behaviors and feelings based on environment Theory of Mind Describe the cognitive, social and cultural influences on the self-concept. Define “theory of mind” and describe theory-of-mind tests. Theory of Mind: -Ability to reason about others thoughts and beliefs and how they relation to their actions -You have theory of mind if you can put yourself in others shoes and see how they understand things Theory of Mind Tests: Container Test: -Researcher has a box of smarties with pencils in it; next person asked what is in the box 3 years old smarties 4 years old pencils Displacement Test: -Sally puts marble in basket and leaves;Anne moves marble to box -Where will Sally look> 3 Years old box 4 Years old basket (where she left it) Describe the precursors to theory of mind. Age 3Children know things about self and think
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