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PSYC 203 Final: PSYC203 Final Exam Study Material

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Queen's University
PSYC 203
Daryl Wilson

PSYC203FinalStudyMaterial Chapter 1: Scientific Thinking in Psychology Defend the need for a research methods course in a psychology curriculum 1. Foundation for understanding other psychology courses, which are based on research 2. Become a critical consumer of scientific info (especially when assessing claims made about human behaviour & mental processes) 3. Essential for grad school (when grad schools in psychology examine student transcripts, they most likely want to see Statistics & Research Methods courses) 4. Develops scientific skills (particular type of scientific thinking) Explain how the purpose of a methods course differs from other courses in the psychology curriculum - Methods course teaches a process of acquiring knowledge about psychological phenomena which can be applied to all the specific content areas represented by other courses in the psychology curriculum Identify & evaluate non-scientific ways of knowing about things in the world - through authority, reasoning & experience AUTHORITY - when we accept the validity of info from a source we judge to be expert - can be in error (may intentionally mislead you or may just not know the answer themselves) - do learn important things from those who are recognized as experts in particular fields (ex. Weather Channel, doctors, etc.) USE OF REASON - we sometimes arrive at conclusions by using logic & reason - must be careful to avoid faulty logic & must be careful not to base logical reasoning on false premises - known as the a priori method for acquiring knowledge (a way of knowing in which a person develops a belief by reasoning & reaching agreement with others who are convinced of the merits of the reasoned argument) EXPERIENCE - Empiricism: the process of learning things through direct observation or experience - interpretations of experiences can be influenced by social cognition biases: - Belief perseverance: tendency to hold on to one's beliefs even in face of contradictory info - Confirmation bias: tendency to search out info that supports your belief & rejecting info that is contradictory - Availability heuristic: tendency to overestimate frequency of memorable or salient events - First instinct fallacy: "go with your initial gut feeling" (when students change answers & happen to get the item wrong - statistically less likely than changing an answer & getting it right - , the outcome sticks out in their memory because it is painful - loss of points) Describe the attributes of science as a way of knowing that assumes determinism & discoverability; makes systematic observations; produces public, data-based, but tentative knowledge; asks answerable questions; & develops theories that attempt to explain psychological phenomena SCIENCE ASSUMES DETERMINISM & DISCOVERABILITY - Determinism: events have causes - Discoverability: causes of events can actually be discovered & understood - Statistical or probabilistic determinism: argues that events can be predicted but only with a probability greater than chance SCIENCE MAKES SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATIONS - less affected by cognitive bias than everyday thinking - scientist's systematic observations include using (a) precise definitions of the phenomena being measured (operational definitions), (b) reliable & valid measuring tools that yield useful & interpretable data, (c) generally accepted research methodologies, & (d) a system of logic for drawing conclusions & fitting those conclusions into general theories SCIENCE PRODUCES PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE - Objectivity: eliminating human factors (expectation & bias); research precise enough to be replicated & satisfy the objectivity criterion - Previously, psychology defined itself as the "science of mental life" & an early methods was called introspection (form of precise self-report) SCIENCE PRODUCES DATA-BASED CONCLUSIONS - Data-driven: expect conclusions about behaviour to be supported by evidence gathered through a systematic procedure SCIENCE PRODUCES TENTATIVE CONCLUSIONS - recognize that conclusions drawn from data are always tentative & subject to revision based on future research - science is self-correcting SCIENCE ASKS ANSWERABLE QUESTIONS - Empirical questions: can be answered through systematic observations & techniques that characterize scientific methodology - precise enough to allow specific predictions to be made SCIENCE DEVELOPS THEORIES THAT CAN BE FALSIFIED - outcomes can occur that would disprove the theory - satisfies the falsification criterion Distinguish science from pseudoscience & recognize the attributes of pseudoscientific thinking Pseudoscience - any field of inquiry that appears to use scientific methods & tries to give the impression that it is scientific, but is actually based on inadequate, unscientific methods & yields results that are generally false ASSOCIATED WITH REAL SCIENCE - tries to appear legitimate - ex. Phrenology - attempted to demonstrate that different parts of the brain had identifiably distinct functions (its origins are found in true science) - ex. Graphology - techniques to assess handwriting & reveal personality traits (confuses concepts with genuine scientific ones) RELIES ON ANECDOTAL EVIDENCE - Anecdotal evidence: evidence from a single case that illustrates a phenomenon; when relied on exclusively, faulty conclusions can easily be drawn - Effort justification: after people expend significant effort, they feel compelled to convince themselves the effort was worthwhile SIDESTEPS THE FALSIFICATION REQUIREMENT - avoids falsification by explaining away anomalies - does not explain specific predictions, vague REDUCES COMPLEX PHENOMENA TO SIMPLISTIC CONCEPTS - great consumer appeal Describe the main goals of research in psychology & relate them to research strategies to be encountered later in the book DESCRIPTION - Description: identify regularly occurring sequences of events, including both stimuli or environmental events & responses or behavioural events - e.g., observational research, survey/questionnaire research PREDICTION - Laws: regular, predictable relationships between events - Prediction: statements about future occurrence of a behavioural event are made, usually with some probability - e.g., correlational research EXPLANATION - Explanation: the causes of events are sought; might have a treatment & control group - e.g., experimental research APPLICATION - Application: refers to ways of applying principles of behaviour learned through research - e.g., improving/changing lives Eleanor Gibson (1910-2002) - best known for her "visual cliff studies", showing the unwillingness of eight-month-olds to cross the "deep side" - experienced sexism in the workplace B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) - operant conditioning - experimental analysis of behaviour - the Skinner box Chapter 2: Ethics in Psychological Research Watson & Rayner (1920) - The "Little Albert" study - long term negative consequences were posed on Little Albert McGraw (1941) - effects of repeated pinpricks - repeatedly applied pinpricks to cheeks & bodies of infants - infants showed significant distress, including withdrawal responses, crying & stress - was for pain research purposes Dennis (1941) - raising children in isolation - studied reduced physical & social stimulation on infant development - placed twins in a sensory deprived & socially deprived environment for 14 months - wanted to show benefits of raising children in stimulus-rich environments Describe the origins of the APA ethics code - A system of ethics is a set of "standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession" - First code by APA = 1953 - Used a procedure called the critical incidents technique to survey members of APA, asking to provide examples of unethical "incidents" Articulate the code's five general principles, especially as they apply to research in psychology, & distinguish between the code's general principles & its specific standards 1. BENEFICENCE & NON-MALIFICENCE - constantly weigh benefits & costs & seek to achieve great good 2. FIDELITY & RESPONSIBILITY - constantly aware of responsibility to society & always exemplify highest standards of professional behaviour 3. INTEGRITY - be honest (no falsifying of data, no misleading research) 4. JUSTICE - fair treatment & maintain level of expertise to reduce chances of work showing bias 5. RESPECT FOR PEOPLE'S RIGHTS & DIGNITY - safeguard welfare & protect rights of volunteers - General principles are aspirational, designed to guide & inspire toward highest ideals of profession, whereas standards establish specific rules of conduct 10 CATEGORIES OF ETHICAL STANDARDS 1. Resolving Ethical Issues (ex. reporting ethical violations) 2. Competence (ex. boundaries of competence) 3. Human Relations (ex. conflict of interest) 4. Privacy & Confidentiality (ex. minimizing intrusions on privacy) 5. Advertising/Public Statements (ex. media presentations) 6. Record-keeping & Fees (ex. referrals & fees) 7. Education & training (ex. accuracy in teaching) 8. Research & Publication (ex. informed consent to research) 9. Assessment (ex. test construction) 10. Therapy (ex. terminating therapy) Describe the role of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in the research process & what needs to be done by the researcher to achieve IRB approval of research The IRB... - judges the benefits & costs - determines whether the project meets ethical guidelines - key factor: degree of risk to the subjects Researchers seeking approval... - submit rationale for study & description of procedures, statement about potential risks, how risks will be alleviated & why they can be justified, copy of study's informed consent form & copies of materials to be used Explain when research proposals are exempt from IRB review, eligible for expedited review, or in need of a full formal review EXEMPT FROM REVIEW - studies conducted in educational setting for training purposes - purely naturalistic observation studies of public behaviour - survey research that does not assess sensitive topics - archival research ELIGIBLE FOR EXPEDITED REVIEW - typical psychology lab experiments in basic processes such as memory, attention, or perception, in which participants will not experience uncomfortable levels of stress or have behaviour manipulated in significant fashion IN NEED OF FULL FORMAL REVIEW - everything else Explain why the decision-making processes of IRBs have occasionally been controversial - Non-specialists pass judgement on procedures not understood - Difficult to win approval for basic research (not for applied) - Too much weight on risk concern (may be "at risk" even if that involves stress) - Overemphasize medical research model to evaluate proposals - Lack of appeals - Consistency varies Identify the essential features of a researcher's ethical responsibility when completing psychological research using adult human participants - Ensure that the overall benefits of study outweigh overall costs - Do not harm participants - Achieve informed consent (basic description, length, confidentiality, anonymity, contact info, opportunity to review results, signatures) - Assure participants they can quit without penalty - Provide debriefing, de-hoaxing, desensitizing - Assure confidentiality Describe historic examples of research, in both medicine & psychology, that raised serious ethical questions TUSKEGEE SYPHILLIS STUDY - examined 400 black men in US diagnosed with syphilis - not informed, never treated - brought in for blood tests & analysis to study progress of disease UNITED STATES - GUATEMALAN EXPERIMENTS - similar syphilis experiment - purposefully infected prisoners & soldiers with syphilis without consent - treated with antibiotics - used to study disease & how antibiotics fight it WILLOWBROOK HEPATITIS STUDY - examined progress of hepatitis - children with mental disabilities were purposely infected with hepatitis PROJECT MK-ULTRA - CIA sponsored studies to see if LSD & torture would help as interrogation technique & mind control - done with soldiers & some members of public - not told they were going to get repeated doses of LSD - high risk experiment with no benefit Identify the ethical principles involved when completing research using children & those from special populations (e.g., prisoners, nursing home residents) INFANTS - parents provide informed consent CHILDREN - parents provide informed consent - children must assent to study OTHER SPECIAL GROUPS (ex. prisoners) - special care to avoid feelings of coercion (ex. saying you'll put in a good word so they might reduce sentences) Describe how the code applies to research that involves the Internet - problems with ensuring consent - cannot ensure that participant is certain age & cannot know details about identity - problems with conducting effective debriefing Describe the arguments for & against the use of animals in psychological research PROS - easy to control for environmental, genetic & developmental histories - can be put in situations that could not be used with humans CONS - humans have no right to consider themselves superior to any other sentient species - should have same basic rights to privacy, autonomy & freedom - should to inflict needless pain suffering when alternative approaches would yield same conclusions Identify the essential features of a researcher's ethical responsibility when completing psychological research using animal subjects Justifying the study - cost-benefit analysis Caring for the animals in a humane manner - must be expert of species you are experimenting with Using animals for educational purposes - minimize use of animals in general; computer simulation is used more frequently Identify the varieties of scientific dishonesty, how it can be detected, & understand some of the reasons misconduct sometimes occurs in science PLAGIARISM - copying someone else's work DATA FALSIFICATION - producing misleading data - can be detected by asking to see raw data, re-testing the experiment, & peer-reviewing the study Chapter 3: Developing Ideas for Research in Psychology Distinguish between & identify the value of both basic & applied research BASIC RESEARCH - designed to understand fundamental psychological phenomena - not focused on directly discovering solutions to real-world problems - learn things that might eventually be used for applied research - the foundation of applied research APPLIED RESEARCH - designed to shed light on the solution to real-world problems - directly addresses real-world problems Distinguish between the laboratory & the field as the setting for research in psychology, & understand the advantages & disadvantages of each LAB (often basic) - greater control over the experimental conditions of the study - conditions of study can be specified more precisely - participants can be selected & placed in different conditions of study more systematically - sometimes criticized for being "artificial" FIELD (often applied) - more realistic - more similar to everyday life - little or no control over experimental conditions Mundane realism: how closely a study mirrors real-life experiences Experimental realism: concerns the extent to which research study has an impact on subjects, forces them to take the matter seriously, & involves them in procedures Distinguish between qualitative & quantitative research, & understand how they often combine QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH - data are collected & presented in the form of numbers QUALITATIVE RESEARCH - narrative descriptions, content analyses, interview - may be more subject to biases ex. Walker (1996) - do sex differences affect relationships in terms of control of a TV remote? - semi-structured interviews - quantifiable questions (women had control 20% of the time) - qualitative - open-ended questions, quotes Be able to formulate a good empirical question - precisely define all terms - answer with data - observe behaviour - applicable problem - testable theory - new question generated from past research Understand the need for operational definitions Operational definitions: variables defined in terms of a clearly specified set of operations - allows experiments to be repeated Understand how the use of several operational definitions for the same concept can strengthen conclusions about psychological phenomena (converging operations) Converging operations: the idea that our understanding of some behavioural phenomenon is increased when a series of investigations, all using slightly different operational definitions & experimental procedures, nonetheless converge on a common conclusion - if results reach same conclusion, even though each used different operational definitions for specific variables, then confidence is high that lawful relationship is established Describe examples of psychological research that have developed from everyday observations & from serendipitous events EVERYDAY OBSERVATION Zeigarnik effect: memory is better for incomplete rather than completed tasks - like how waitresses need to retain orders in their mind until the bill is complete Bystander effect - Kitty Genovese murder - assume someone else will help if other people are around - the study of helping behaviour SERENDIPITOUS EVENTS Serendipity: discovering something while looking for something else entirely Describe the defining features of a theory in psychology, & show how theories (a) lead to research in psychology; (b) are influenced by research outcomes; & (c) must be productive, parsimonious, & testable (i.e., capable of falsification) DEFINING FEATURES OF A THEORY - Theory: a set of logically consistent statements about some phenomenon - includes constructs: a hypothetical factor that is not observed directly (existence is inferred) - takes constructs & tries to relate them to each other THEORIES LEAD TO RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY - use it to make predictions about behaviour - observations → induction (the logical process of reasoning from specific events to the general) → theory → deduction (use set of general statements from theory to create a hypothesis) → hypothesis → experiment THEORIES ARE INFLUENCED BY RESEARCH OUTCOMES - replication & extension THEORIES MUST BE PRODUCTIVE, PARISOMONIOUS, & TESTABLE - Productivity: produces new ideas - Falsification: can be tested such that there are outcomes that could fail to support the theory - Parsimony: includes the minimum number of assumptions necessary to predict future outcomes; the simpler the explanation, the better Chapter 4: Measurement & Data Analysis Recognize the variety of behavioural measures used when conducting research in psychology - virtually unlimited - ranges from overt behaviour to self-report to recordings of physiological activity Understand what psychologists mean by a construct (e.g., visual imagery) & how measurable behaviours (e.g., reaction time) are developed & used to study constructs Construct: hypothetical factor that cannot be observed directly but is inferred from certain behaviours - ex. visual imagery - we don't really know if people use this or are capable of using this Measurable behaviours: much like operational definitions - ex. reaction time - this is a behavioural measure to find out if visual imagery actually exists Know what it means to say that a behavioural measure is reliable & relatively free from measurement error - based on its repeatability - measurement is consistent - results from a minimum of measurement error (any inaccuracy or variability in measurement) - higher reliability → less measurement error Know what it means to say that a behavioural measure is valid, & distinguish several forms of validity (content validity, criterion validity, construct validity, etc.) - measures what it is designed to measure CONTENT VALIDITY - simplest level of validity - concerns whether or not actual content of items makes sense in terms of construct being measured ex. want to measure "social anxiety" - good = my heart pounds in my chest when I have to talk to a group of people - bad = I enjoy drinking alcohol in social situations CRITERION VALIDITY - whether a test can successfully predict some future behaviour - ex. GRE test should predict future success in grad studies CONSTRUCT VALIDITY - whether a test adequately measures some construct - does our IQ test measure intelligence? - not focused on individual items (unlike content) CONVERGENT VALIDITY - if scores on test designed to measure some construct are correlated with scores on another test that are theoretically related to the construct, then convergent validity would be high DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY - if scores on a test designed to measure some construct are uncorrelated with scores on another test that should be theoretically unrelated to the construct, then discriminant validity would be high Identify the defining features of nominal, ordinal, interval, & ratio scales of measurement, & know when each should be used NOMINAL SCALE - used for categorical data - numbers are not meaningful; serve to identify categories ORDINAL SCALE - ordering of numbers is meaningful, but metric is not - difference between rankings may not be equivalent INTERVAL SCALE - each unit increase is assumed to reflect same change in underlying measure - not a true zero point RATIO SCALE - each unit increase is assumed to reflect same change in underlying measure - there is a true zero point Summarize data using measures of central tendency (e.g., mean), measures of variability (e.g., standard deviation), & visual displays (e.g., histograms) MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY - Mean of X = ΣX/N - Mode = most frequent score - Median location = (N + 1) / 2 MEASURES OF VARIABILITY - Range = highest score - lowest score - Standard deviation = squareroot (Σ(X-meanX)^2/(N-1)) - Variance = SD^2 - Interquartile range (useful for outliers) VISUAL DISPLAYS - Histograms: graph showing the number of times each score occurs or how often scores within a defined range occur - Normal curve Understand the logic of hypothesis testing & what is involved in making an inferential analysis of data - Inferential statistics: inferring general conclusions from sample data - Null hypothesis: no differences - Alternative hypothesis: researcher's prediction Describe the criticisms of hypothesis testing & suggested alternative (e.g., confidence intervals) Type I Errors: rejecting the null when it is in fact true Type II Errors: failing to reject the null when it is in fact false Understand what is meant by (a) effect size & (b) the power of a statistical test, & know the factors that enhance power Effect size: provides an estimate of the magnitude of the difference among sets of scores while taking into account the amount of variability in the scores - small, medium or large effect - ex. Cohen's d Power: the chance of rejecting the null when it is false (experimenter heaven) - affected by the alpha level, by the size of the treatment effect & by the size of the sample (esp) Chapter 5: Introduction to Experimental Research Define a manipulated independent variable, & identify examples of situational, task, & instructional variables Independent variable: the factor of interest to the experimenter, the one being studied to see if it will influence behaviour - sometimes called a manipulated variable because experimenter has control over it & is creating situations Situational variable: features in environment that participants might encounter - ex. loudness of music and impact on memory task - 3 levels of IV (no music, low music, low music) represent the levels, or 3 situations Task variable: different tasks to perform - ex. language comprehension research - one group given poetry, another given news article, to determine types of comprehension error based on task Instructional variable: manipulated by telling different groups to perform task in different ways - ex. learn list of study words with different techniques; same task, instructed differently Distinguish between experimental & control groups Experimental group: the group that is given treatment Control group: treatment is withheld - only occur in research when it is important to have a comparison with some baseline level of performance - ex. no control groups when studying gender differences Describe John Stuart Mill's rules of inductive logic, & apply them to the concepts of experimental & control groups MILL'S RULES OF INDUCTIVE LOGIC Method of agreement: if X, then Y - ex. increase in alertness is outcome of drinking coffee; drinking coffee is sufficient to increase alertness - analogous to experimental group - treatment is related to behaviour outcome Method of difference: if not X, then not Y - ex. when not drinking coffee, become tired, drowsy; drinking coffee is necessary to increase alertness - analogous to control group - in absence of treatment, behaviour does not occur Together: X is necessary & sufficient for producing Y Recognize the presence of confounding variables in an experiment, & understand why confounding creates serious problems for interpreting the results of an experiment Confounds: uncontrolled extraneous variable that covaries (changes at the same time) with the IV & could provide an alternative explanation of the results - results from studies with confounds are uninterpretable Ex. distributed study time - IV is distribution of study time; DV is performance on exam given Friday - Group 1 studies 3 hours Monday; Group 2 studies 3 hours Monday & Tuesday; Group 3 studies 3 hours Monday, Tuesday, & Wednesday - Confounds: amount of time between studying & writing exam; increase in amount of study time across groups Identify independent & dependent variables, given a brief description of any experiment Independent variable: the factor of interest that is manipulated by the experimenter - ex. loudness of a tone, amount of alcohol given, brightness of light, length of time given to remember list of words Dependent variable: behaviours that are the measured outcomes of experiments - ex. measure of aggressiveness, measure of exam performance - ceiling effect: task is too easy, all scores are very high - floor effects: task is too difficult, all scores are very low Distinguish between independent variables that are manipulated variables & those that are subject variables, & understand the interpretation problems that accompany the use of subject variables Manipulated variable: experimenter has control over it - assuming that there are no confounds, we can conclude that the IV causes the DV to some degree of confidence Subject variable: not manipulated - rather, the experimenter uses selected, pre-existing attributes of participants - ex. sex, age, personality characteristic - considered quasi-experimental - no causal conclusions - just conclude that the groups differ (groups may differ in several ways other than of the interest of the experimenter) - ex. selecting two groups based on high or low anxiety does not guarantee they will be equivalent in other ways (e.g., self-confidence, tendency to be depressed) Recognize the factors that can reduce the statistical conclusion validity of an experiment Statistical conclusion validity: concerns the extent to which the researcher uses statistics properly & draws the appropriate conclusions from the statistical analysis 1. Researchers might do wrong analysis or violate assumptions required for performing particular analysis - data might be measured on ordinal scale, requiring use of particular type of statistical procedure, but researcher mistakenly uses analysis for interval/ratio data 2. Researcher might selectively report some analyses that came out as predicted but might not report others - considered fraudulent 3. Reliability of measures used - if dependent measures are not reliable, there will be great deal of error variability, reducing chances of finding significant effect - type II errors common Describe how construct validity applies to the design of an experiment Construct validity: whether a test truly measures some construct (e.g., self-efficacy) - refers to quality of operational definitions for variables Distinguish between the internal & external validity of a study External validity: degree to which research findings generalize beyond specific context of experiment Internal validity: degree to which experiment is methodologically sound & confound-free - confident that results are directly associated with IV & not result of other, uncontrolled factor Describe the various ways in which an experiment's external validity can be reduced Results should generalize in 3 ways: 1. To other populations - ex. general population vs. college students 2. To other environments - ex. lab research is too sterile to be applied to real life - ecological validity: research with relevance for everyday cognitive activities of people trying to adapt to their environment 3. To other times - longevity of results - research concerned with fundamental processes (e.g., cognition) stands the test of time better than research involving social factors that may be embedded in historical context Describe & be able to recognize the various threats to an experiment's internal validity History: event occurs between pre- & post-testing that produces large changes unrelated to treatment program itself - ex. change in university grading policy Maturation: when participants have grown or matured - ex. become less prone to test anxiety over the years Regression to the mean: if score #1 from a subject is an extreme score, then score #2 from the same person will be closer to whatever the mean for the larger set of scores is Testing: taking pre-test might affect treatment - practice effect of repeated testing could sensitize participants to something about the program - might pay more attention to something if they figure out what is being tested Instrumentation: measurement tool might change from pre- to post-test - e.g., if post-test was easier, improvement might be produced Subject selection effects: participants not randomly assigned - e.g., subjects choose if they want to participate in morning or afternoon (morning might be keeners, afternoon might be lazy) - time of day is representing a confound Attrition: participants do not always complete the experiment they begin - if particular types of people are more likely to drop out than others, then the group finishing the study is on average made up of different types of people than is the group that started the study Recognize that external validity might not be important for all research but that internal validity is essential External validity is not determined by individual research project; it accumulates over time as research is replicated in various contexts - thus, it is not necessarily required for a study to include many groups of people, take place in several settings, & be repeated, since this will take place in follow-up studies Internal validity is necessary since it involves confounds that would otherwise make a study uninterpretable Understand the ethical guidelines for running a subject pool Subject pool: a group of students, typically those enrolled in intro to psych classes, who are asked to participate in research as part of a course requirement - convenient for researchers - some pools are not really voluntary APA guidelines for recruiting students: - students should be aware of requirement before signing up for course - students should get thorough description of requirement on first day of class, including clear description of alternative activities if they opt not to serve as subjects - alternative activities must equal research participation in time & effort & have educational value - all proposals for research using subject pools must have prior IRB approval - special effort made to treat students courteously - clear & simple procedure for students to complain about mistreatment without course grade affected - all other aspects of APA ethics code must be followed - psych department must have mechanism to provide periodic review of subject pool policies Chapter 6: Methodological Control in Experimental Research Distinguish between-subjects designs from within-subjects designs Between-subjects design: comparison of conditions A & B will be a contrast between two groups of individuals; subjects received either A or B Within-subjects design: participant receives both levels A & B, so both levels exist within each individual - sometimes called repeated-measured design Understand how random assignment solves the equivalent-groups problem in between-subjects designs Random assignment: every person volunteering for the study has an equal chance of being palace din any of the groups being formed - takes individual difference factors that could influence the study & spread them evenly throughout different groups - spreads potential confounds evenly across both groups - the greater number of subjects, the better this will work Blocked random assignment: a procedure ensuring that each condition of the study has a participant randomly assigned to it before any condition is repeated a second time - each block contains all conditions of study in randomized order - e.g., CBA BCA ABC ACB Understand when matching, followed by random assignment, should be used instead of simple random assignment when attempting to create equivalent groups Matching: participants are grouped together on some subject variable such as their characteristic level of anxiety & then distributed randomly to different groups in experiment ex. "Anxiety level" would be considered a matching variable - those with similar scores are paired then placed in opposite groups - sometimes used when number of subjects is small & random assignment alone is risky & might not yield equivalent groups 2 conditions must be met: 1. Have good reason to believe the matching variable will have a predictable effect on outcome of study - must be confident that matching variable is correlated with DV 2. Must be a reasonable way of measuring or identifying participants on matching variable - participants may be tested on matching variable first then assigned to groups then put through experimental procedure - initial testing might give participants indication of study's purpose, introducing bias - simplest matching situations occur when matching variables are constructs determined without directly testing participants Understand why counterbalancing is needed to control for order effects in within-subjects designs Counterbalancing: altering the order of the experimental conditions Distinguish between progressive & carryover effects in within-subjects designs, & understand why counterbalancing usually works better with the former than with the latter Sequence or order effects: once a participant has completed the first part of a study, the experience or altered circumstances could influence performance in later parts of the study Progressive effects: performance changes steadily from trial to trial - may become steadily improved or may produce gradual fatigue or boredom so performance declines Carryover effects: some sequences might produce effects different from those of other sequences - ex. easy math problems given before hard math problems - possibly gain confidence on easy problems, then perform well on hard problems too; if vice versa, possibly get frustrated on hard problems, then perform poorly on easy problems too Counterbalancing usually works better with progressive effects than carryover effects because with carryover effects, the order in which the conditions are presented might influence the study's outcome - when carryover effects might be suspected, researchers usually use a between-subjects design to avoid the effect entirely Describe the various forms of counterbalancing for situations in which participants are tested once per condition & more than once per condition TESTING ONCE PER CONDITION - participants are tested in each condition only once Complete counterbalancing: every possible sequence will be sued at least once - calculate X!, where X is the number of conditions & ! is the factorial - ex. 3 conditions: 3x2x1 = 6 (6 possible sequences - ABC, ACB, BCA, BAC, CAB, CBA) - as the number of levels of the IV increases, the possible sequences needed increase dramatically Partial counterbalancing: when a subset of the total number of orders is used, sometimes called incomplete counterbalancing - sample from complete set of all possible orders or randomize order of conditions for each subject - Latin square: every condition of study occurs equally often in every sequential position, & every condition precedes & follows every other condition exactly once TESTING MORE THAN ONCE PER CONDITION - often in research in perception & attention - used to achieve consistency among various trials Reverse counterbalancing: experimenter presents conditions in one order, then presents the again in reverse order - e.g., A-B-C-D D-C-B-A, & another group would see the opposite of this - used in the Stroop test Block randomization: basic rule is that every condition must occur once before any condition can be repeated - order of conditions is randomized within each block - eliminates possibility that participants can predict what is coming next - e.g., B-C-D-A C-A-D-B or C-A-B-D A-B-C-D Describe the specific types of between- & within-subjects designs that occur in research in developmental psychology, & understand the problems associated with each Cross-sectional design - a between-subjects design - e.g., compare language performance of 3-, 4-, 5-year old children, using 3 groups of children - pro: time to complete study is short - con: potential for cohort effects (may differ in terms of environment raised in as well as age) Longitudinal design - a within-subjects design - e..g, same language study measuring language behaviour in group of 3 year olds, & study these same children when they turn 4 & again at age 5 - pro: problem of cohort effects eliminated - con: potential for attrition (tendency of some to be more likely to drop out of study than others) Cohort sequential design - combo of cross-sectional & longitudinal - group of subjects is selected & retested over time & additional cohorts are selected every few years & also retested over time - different cohorts are continually being retested Describe how experimenter bias can occur & how it can be controlled Experimenter bias: experimenter expectations can influence subject behaviour (e.g., more encouraging of participants in Group 1 or more time for Group 1) - may lead participants to behave in a certain way to confirm hypothesis CONTROLS Automating the procedure (e.g., computerized) - show photos on a screen rather than an experimenter showing them - research protocols should be put in place so that experiments have highly detailed descriptions of the sequence of steps that experimenters should follow in every research session Double blind procedure: experimenters are kept in dark (blind) about what to expect of participants in particular testing session - subjects also do not know what to expect - neither the experimenters nor participants know which condition is being tested on particular trial (hence designation double) - can be accomplished when principal investigator sets up experiment but colleague collects data - single blind is when subjects are left in dark but experimenters know condition Describe how subject bias can o
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