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PSYC 221 Final: psych 251 final

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PSYC 221
Monica Castelhano

Sensorimotor Stages: 1. Basic reflexes01 monthsuse reflexes to explore world Accommodation of sucking occurs in the first few weeks 2. Primary circular 14 monthsbuild on reflexes and unintentional events 3. Secondary circular 48 monthsincreasingly interested in objects Lack object permanence 4. Intentional behaviour 812 months A not B error Babies of 10 months or younger typically make the perseveration error, meaning they look under box A even though they saw the researcher move the toy under box B, and box B is just as easy to reach. This demonstrates a lack of, or incomplete, schema of object permanence. 5. Testing symbols1824 monthsbeginning of representation Preoperational Stage: o Representations but no operations o Mental representationsymbolic play and delayed imitation o Egocentricunable to take others view points o Centrationfocus on one feature and exclude others o Ignore transformationsfocus on static stages Egocentrism: When asked what the doll sees, point to picture of what they see cannot put themselves in another persons shoes Children can do if more familiar objects are used Egocentrism refers to the childs inability to see a situation from another persons point of view. According to Piaget, the egocentric child assumes that other people see, hear, and feel exactly the same as the child does Conservation: Not able to solve conservation problems until in concrete operational stage (age 712), still have to have stimuli there Come in at different stages Conservation refers to a logical thinking ability which, according to the psychologist Jean Piaget, is not present in children during the preoperational stage of their development at ages 27, but develops in the concrete operational stage at ages 711. Conservation is one of Piagets developmental accomplishments, in which the child understands that changing the form of a substance or object does not change its amount, overall volume, or mass Formal Operations: Not until this stage, can children think abstractly and reason hypothetically Use scientific reasoning Ponder deep questions Main Problems with Piagets Theory: Stage model: childrens thinking is not this consistent across stages Piaget underestimated infants competence Piaget underestimated influence of environment Accommodation, assimilation, and equilibration not well spelled out as well as type of thinking at each stage Not all cultures reach formal operations stage Positive Things about Piaget:
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