PSYC 231 - Chapter 8 - Raymond Cattell, Hans Eysenck, etc.

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Queen's University
PSYC 231
Angela Howell- Moneta

Chapter 8: Raymond Cattell, Hans Eysenck, and Other Trait Theorists - Goal was to predict how a person will behave in response to a given stimulus situation - Aim to study personality, not treat it - Rigorously scientific, rather than clinical Factor analysis: based on correlations between several measures, which may be explained in terms of underlying factors Cattell’s Approach to Personality Traits Traits: relatively permanent reaction tendencies Common trait: expressed by everyone to some degree - Intelligence, extraversion, etc. Unique traits: shared by few other people - Interests and attitudes Ability traits: how efficiently we will be able to work toward a goal Temperament traits: the general style and emotional tone of our behaviour - Assertiveness, easygoingness, and irritability Dynamic traits: driving forces of behaviour - Interests, motivations, and ambitions Surface traits: personality characteristics that correlate with one another but do not constitute a factor because they are not determined by a single source - Anxiety, indecision, and irrational fear – neuroticism - Less stable and permanent – less important in describing personality Source traits: unitary personality factors that are much more stable and permanent - Individual factors that combine to account for surface traits Constitutional traits: originate in biological conditions but are not necessarily innate - Alcohol intake leads to carelessness, talkativeness, and slurred speech Environmental-mold traits: derive from influences in our social and physical environments Source Traits: The Basic Factors of Personality - 16 source traits that are the basic factors of personality – Sixteen Personality Factor (16 PF) Questionnaire - Organized in a bipolar fashion Dynamic Traits: The Motivating Forces Erg: permanent constitutional traits that provide energy for goal-directed behaviour - Basic innate units of motivation - 11 ergs: anger, appeal, curiosity, disgust, gregariousness, hunger, protection, security, self- assertion, self-submission, sex Sentiment: environmental-mold source traits that motivate behaviour - Pattern of learned attitudes that focuses on an important aspect of life - Person’s community, spouse, occupation, religion, hobby The Influences of Heredity and Environment - Overall, one-third of our personality is genetically based - Two thirds is determined by social and environmental influences Stages of Personality Development 1. Infancy  Birth to 6  Major formative period for personality  Weaning, toilet training, formation of ego, superego, and social attitudes 2. Childhood  6-14  Independence from parents and identification with peers 3. Adolescence  14-23  Conflicts about independence, self-assertion, and sex 4. Maturity  23-50  Satisfaction with career, marriage, and family  Less flexible than earlier stages 5. Late maturity  50-65  Personality changes in response to physical and social circumstances  Re-examine values and search for a new self 6. Old age  65+  Adjustment to loss of friends, career, and status Questions about Human Nature - For behaviour to be considered predictable, it must be lawful and orderly - Determinism > free will Assessment in Cattell’s Theory L-data: life record ratings of behaviou
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