PSYC 231 - Chapter 9 - Abraham Maslow

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PSYC 231
Angela Howell- Moneta

Chapter 9: Abraham Maslow: Needs-Hierarchy Theory Humanistic Approach - Founder of the humanistic psychology movement - Human interests and values are of primary importance - Flourished in 60’s and 70’s - Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers - Emphasize human strengths + aspirations, conscious free will, and fulfillment of human potential - Objected psychoanalysis - Too limited - Focused on negative – neuroses and psychoses - Objected behaviourism - Focuses only on objective observation of overt behaviour - ‘Mechanized robots’ – likened to lab rats + slow computers Abraham Maslow - Each person is born with the same set of instinctive needs that allow us to grow, develop, and fulfill our potential Personality Development: The Hierarchy of Needs Hierarchy of five innate needs: arranged from strongest to weakest, that activates + directs behaviour Instinctoid needs: innate needs in needs-hierarchy theory - Have a hereditary component - Can be affected/overridden by learning, social expectations, and fear of disapproval - Needs are instinctive, but behaviours are learned – subject to variation between individuals - Lower needs need to be fulfilled before higher needs become influential - Generally only one need will dominate personality at one time Characteristics of Needs 1. The lower the need, the greater its strength, potency, and priority 2. Higher needs appear later in life  Physiological + safety needs – infancy  Belongingness + esteem – adolescence  Self-actualization – midlife 3. Higher needs are less necessary for survival – gratification is postponed  Failure to satisfy a lower need (but not a higher need) causes a crisis  Deficit/deficiency needs – failure to satisfy them produces a deficit or lack in the individual 4. Higher needs do contribute to survival and growth – lead to improved health and longevity  Growth or being needs 5. Satisfaction of higher needs is beneficial psychologically  Leads to contentment, happiness, and fulfillment 6. Gratification of higher needs requires better external circumstances  Social, economic, political 7. A need does not have to be fully satisfied before the next need becomes important  85% of physiological, 70% of safety, 50% of belongingness, 40% of esteem, and 10% of self- actualization – describes a person who is satisfied Self-Actualization: maximum realization and fulfillment of our potentials, talents, and abilities - Fulfill one’s own potentials at the highest level possible Conditions to satisfy self-actualization - Must be free from constraints imposed by society and ourselves - Must not be distracted by the lower-order needs - Must be secure in our self-image and in our relationships with other people; must be able to love and be loved in return - Must have a realistic knowledge of our strengths and weaknesses Exceptions: those who give up lower needs to fulfill a vow of poverty in the name of religion; artists who sacrifice health and security for their work Cognitive needs: innate needs to know and to understand - Appears in late infancy, early childhood - Needs are innate but may be enhanced/inhibited by parents and teachers The Study of Self-Actualizers Metamotivation: the motivation of self-actualizers – maximizing personal potential rather than striving for a p
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