PSYC 231 - Chapter 10 - Carl Rogers

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Queen's University
PSYC 231
Angela Howell- Moneta

Chapter 10: Carl Rogers: Self-Actualization Theory - Non-directive/client-centred/person-centred therapy - It is the person and not the therapist that directs the change - Therapist facilitates the change - Rejected the notion that past events exert a controlling influence on present behaviour - Innate, overriding motivation – inborn tendency to actualize, develop our abilities and potentials – become a fully functioning person The Self and the Tendency toward Actualization - Developed a method to determine if a child’s behaviour was healthy + constructive/unhealthy + destructive - External factors: Family environment, health, intellectual development, economic circumstances, cultural influences, social interactions, and level of education - Internal factors: Self-insight/self-understanding – acceptance of self, reality, and responsibility for the self - Self-insight most accurately predicted later behaviour Actualization tendency: the basic human motivation to actualize, maintain, and enhance the self - Facilitates human growth in the womb – differentiation of the physical organs - When children fall while learning to walk – tendency to actualize is stronger than the urge to regress simply because the growth process is difficult Organismic valuing process: the process by which we judge experiences in terms of their value for fostering/hindering our actualization + growth - Prefer to avoid undesirable experiences and repeat desirable experiences The Experiential World - The reality of our environment depends on our perception of it, which may not always coincide with reality - Our perceptions change with time and circumstances - Our experiences become the only basis for our judgments and behaviours The Development of the Self in Childhood Self-concept: the separate part (I, me, myself) from the rest of the experiential field - Image of what we are, what we should be, and what we would like to be - Internalize the attitudes of other people Positive regard: acceptance, love, and approval from others - Probably a learned need - Universal and persistent Unconditional positive regard: approval granted regardless of a person’s behaviour Positive self-regard: the condition under which we grant ourselves acceptance and approval Conditions of worth: a belief that we are worthy of approval only when we express desirable behaviours and attitudes and refrain from expressing those that bring disapproval from others - Learn appropriate behaviours - Inhibit development by living within the confines of their self-worth Incongruence: a discrepancy between a person’s self-concept and a
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