PSYC 231 - Chapter 13 - Albert Bandura

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Queen's University
PSYC 231
Angela Howell- Moneta

Chapter 13: Albert Bandura: Modeling Theory - Believed that much learning takes place as a result of reinforcement, but that al forms of behaviour can be learned without directly experiencing any reinforcement Observational learning: learning new responses by watching other people Vicarious reinforcement: strengthening behaviour by observing others and the consequences rather than doing so themselves - Must first make a cognitive/conscious decision to behave the same way – anticipate and appreciate consequences of behaviours Modeling: The Basis of Observational Learning - Operant conditioning is inefficient and potentially dangerous – could die before finding the correct sequence of behaviours that bring + reinforcement Modeling: a technique involving observing the behaviour of others and participating with them in performing the desired behaviour - Bobo doll experiment - Children reflect their parent’s behaviour Disinhibition: the weakening of inhibitions by observing the behaviour of a model - Declines with age Characteristics of the Modeling Situation Characteristics of the models: people who are more similar to us, same sex or age, status/prestige – we will imitate more - Complex behaviours not imitated as quickly - Aggressive behaviours strongly imitated Characteristics of the observers: low in self-confidence and self-esteem, someone who has been reinforced for imitating a behaviour Reward consequences associated with the behaviours: must be meaningful The Processes of Observational Learning 4 related mechanisms: attentional, retention, production, and motivational Attentional processes: being able to pay sufficient attention in order to imitate displayed behaviour - Attentive to relevant cues and stimulus events Retention processes: must be able to remember aspects of the behaviour in order to repeat it Production processes: practice of behaviour - Observations not enough to ensure immediate and skilled performance Incentive and motivational processes: influences attentional and retention processes - Reinforcement can assist in modeling, but
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