Cyber Bowie #3 (Developmental Disorders)
1. According to Barkley, what is one of the functions of the upper portion Anterior
Cingulate Cortex (ACC)? Think of an example in your life where the upper portion of
the ACC would be activated.
Helping you make decisions in social conflicts, where there are social
consequences now and later for what you are about to do. The ACC helps
negotiate the conflicts. It buys you time to think about it, and then allows
you to execute behaviour that is in your long-term welfare.
2. According to Barkley, what is one of the functions of the lower portion of the
ACC? Think of an example in your life where the lower portion of the ACC would be
Plays a role whenever there are emotional conflicts. This is where the frontal
lobe is going to suppress the emotional system.
3. Barkley notes that the ACC is both smaller in individuals with ADHD, and is less
active when they face social and/or emotional conflict.
a. Which section of the brain becomes less regulated as a result of having lower ACC
The limbic system (regulates emotion)
b. Given this low ACC activity, what symptoms would one expect as a result?
Emotionally impulsive, low frustration tolerance, impatience, quickness to
anger, won’t wait, showing your emotions more easily
c. According to Barkley, how can the neurobiology and symptoms of ADHD be
differentiated from mood disorders like Bipolar disorder?
With mood disorders, the limbic system is over-expressing abnormal levels of
emotion, and patients have trouble regulating it – bipolar disorder
ADHD is not a mood disorder – failure to regular mood, inability to inhibit,
self-calm, self-sooth, contemplate and moderate emotions
The mood can be the same with both, but how we express it is different
Next, take a look at this TED talk by Temple Grandin:
1. The title of Temple’s presentation is “The world needs all kinds of minds”.
a. How does Temple describe her mind or her way of thinking? Does this generalize to
other people on the autism spectrum?
She thinks in pictures, not language. The autistic mind attends to detail
(would pick little letters more quickly rather then big letters). She excelled
in art classes, the abstract.
b. How has Temple’s way of thinking enabled her to work to improve conditions for
Visual thinking has been a huge assset in her career designing livestock
facilities: improving how cattle are treated at a slaughter plant Visual thinking provides great insights into the animal mind (animal’s are
Her mind puts Sensory-based information into categories. She thinks bottom-up,
takes little pieces and put them together like a puzzle.
c. Temple describes autism as a trade-off between two things. What are these and how
is this trade-off related to animals?
Autism as a trade-off between thinking and social.
2. Temple Grandin identifies several problems related to how children with autism are
educated today. What are these problems and what recommendations does she make to
engage these children academically?
They need to get the kids interested, and bring forth interesting things in
classes, like science.
Her science teacher got her to study even though she didn’t want to study
They’ve taken out autoshop class, drafting and art class
Use the fixations that some autistic kids have to motivate them to do new
3. At several points throughout her presentation, Temple refers to the smart, geeky,
nerdy kids. Are all geeky, socially isolated children on the autism spectrum? What
characteristics differentiate between a child with Asperger’s Syndrome and a “nerdy”
Tuesdays with Cyberbowie: Cognitive Disorders
Watch this clip on the night program at the Hebrew Home at Riverdale:
1. According to the documentary, what is the definition of “sun-downing”?
For ALZHIEMER’S AND DEMENTIA patients, there day begins at nigh-time.
a. According to Mr. Reingold, why does “sun-downing” sometimes occur in individuals with Alzheimer’s?
They no longer use the clock; Lose the ability to recognize time, because their rhythm is off.
They will sleep when they need to sleep, but only for a few hours.
b. What consequences does “sun-downing” have for individual’s with Alzheimer’s who are living at home
and their caregivers?
Causes tension between the patient and their exhausted caregiver: noise disturbance in the
middle of the night when the patient wants to get out of bed, make meals, etc. The caregivers
would become sleep deprived and often snap at the patient.
2. What types of services does the Hebrew Home offer at night to patients with Alzheimer’s disease?
Dancing, massage and alternative therapies when patients are most active in the middle of the
night. Music and sun-setting walks.
a. What are the advantages of this approach for the patients?
It’s silent, but yet an all-night party; it keeps the patients busy, rather then them disturbing others
Medicare pays for some of the costs and it’s cheaper to use the space in the homes at night; b. What are the potential financial/economic advantages of this service for the wider community?
(HINT: this is covered a little bit in the last few minutes of the clip).
It would be a god-send for caregivers of those who help members with Alzheimer’s
3. Hebrew Home does not offer pharmacotherapy (i.e., medications)?
a. What alternate therapies do they offer to patients instead of medications?
Massage-therapy, pet-therapy, aroma-therapy and touch-therapy
b. Using your knowledge of treatments for Alzheimer’s disease from your textbook and lecture, do you
think that these alternative treatments would be effective? Why or why not?
These alternative treatments may only be helpful in terms of self-soothing the patient, but in
terms of helping with the memory deterioration, these treatments are not helping the patients
learn adaptive skills to better cope with brain deterioration.
c. What could be some of the practical and/or ethical issues involved in using alternative treatments to
Now, listen to this podcast from the Alzheimer’s Society in the UK:
1. The Podcast briefly describes research into treatment outcomes for people with dementia.
a. Why might it be important to carefully study treatment outcomes for people with dementia who are in
1/3 of old people in general hospitals have dementia and there is some evidence that states that
there is deterioration during their stays/spells in general hospitals.
b. According to the researchers, why is it important to continue to assess patients after they have left
Key transition point from when they leave the general hospital and should be studied in terms of