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Midterm Summary II.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 352
Jeannette Benson

Midterm Summary II Categorization - Superordinate: vehicle - Basic (most important): car - Subordinate: sports car - Rosch: Basic Categories= argued to offer an optimal blend of within-category similarity and between- category dissimilarity o ** By 3 years, tend to favour basic level when naming objects Categorization- What about People? Teichman 2001 - Examined Jewish-Israeli childrens concepts of a Jew and an Arab - 4 to 15 year olds - Draw a picture of a male member of each group (looked at clothing, weapons, professions, etc.) - Also asked children questions about depicted males to assess beliefs and intentions - Results: o Children of all ages had generalized images of 2 ethnic groups o Arab image was consistently more negative. MASSIVE GENERALIZATION o Differentiation was expected, but these were rigid and polarized categories - Age Trends: o Preschoolers expressed both positive biases towards in-group and negative biases towards out- group Reflects social influence (these children had no experience to create these biases) o Children in middle childhood manifested reductions in both biases o out-group negativity resurfaces in adolescence May be due to emerging self-identity - ** shows categorization isnt always a positive thing (e.g. with stereotyping) Concept According to the Theory Theorists - Every concept is a theory - 3 grand theories 1) Theory of physical world o Nave physics 2) Theory of living things o Nave biology 3) Theory of behavioural/mental functioning o Nave psychology Biological Concepts - Develop in mostly similar ways across cultures - natural kinds 1) Growth - Distinguishing characteristic of life, specific to and necessary for all living things PRESCHOOL KNOWLEDGE - Decent at knowing what grows - Understanding that its inevitable - Grow= get bigger - Living things can mend themselves but artifacts can not - BUT cant accept dramatic changes in size or exaggerated physical changes (e.g. caterpillar becomes a butterfly) 2) Movement - Lots of things move but only animal movement is independent o At early ages we associate movement with being alive (e.g. clouds) o Piaget studied how these movement cues meant alive to infants - Massey and Gelman, 1988 o 3 and 4 year olds o Shown pictures different types of unfamiliar objects and creatures and asked whether each could move up and down a hill by itself (i.e. quadruped, sloth, echidna) o Results: Quadruped statue looked most familiar, but kids still accurately said sloth and echidna were self-propelling (pictures were of real animals, but quadruped was a wooden statue) Children can overlook perceptual appearance in favour of underlying essence (i.e. animate vs. inanimate) 3) Inheritance - Living things come from living things, and inherit properties from their parents o For the most part, children get this - NATURE VS NURTURE o General research paradigm= tell children about an entity with biological parents who have one characteristic, and parents who raise it with an opposing characteristic. Ask children which characteristic entity will have o Example: Wellman and Gelman Kangaroo raised by goats Can he hop and does he have a pouch? Preschoolers say yes! They understand the inherent properties of a kangaroo - OTHER FINDINGS o Understand inheritance by as early as 4 o Shown when reasoning about animals, plants, and social characteristics o Kids can be more nativist than adults o Nature bias: 5 year olds predict child switched at birth will speak language of their birth parent - NATIVIST BIAS o More nativist for behavioural traits (i.e. language) over physical traits o Taylor, 1996 4 to 10 year olds Asked about stereotyped sex differences Girls raised on an island with all boys, will she still like playing with dolls? At 4 years were nativistic (girls will like dolls), but by 9 years old were more interactionist (girls will like dolls AND cars) o Gellman and Heymann, 1997 Looked at personality traits Baby born from nice parents but raised by mean ones 5 year olds understood that experience would play a role in who the child became 4) Illness - What kids know about illness has relevance for the socialization of health-promoting behaviours - Bugs Yuck! o Preschoolers will refuse to drink a glass of milk with a cockroach in it or one that just had one in it o WILL drink is cockroach is BESIDE the glass, so they understand that contact is relevant when it comes to contaminants - OTHER FINDINGS o Preschoolers recognize that not all illnesses are caused by germs o Physical but not mental illness is caused by germs o Preschoolers are aware of illness-fighting behaviours (i.e. washing their hands) Basic Numerical Abilities - Number abstractions= abstracting and representing the numerical value of an array of objects - Numerical Reasoning= inferring the numerical outcome of transformations Counting Principles 1) One-to-one - One and only one distinct number name to each item - 2.5 to 3 year olds grasp this 2) Stable Order - Always recite numbers in same order (1,2,3) - 2 year olds grasp this 3) Cardinal - Final number name gives value of set - ** Hard because children can get bogged down by the process of counting 4) Abstraction - Anything is countable - 4 year olds grasp this 5) Order- Irrelevance - doesnt matter what order you count objects in - 5 year olds grasp this - ** 3 year olds may implicitly as well! - Gellman: task performance hides underlying research (i.e. get bogged down with the process of counting) - Others: children at 3 dont have the abilities Starkey et al. 1990 - 6 to 9 month old infants - Habituated to series of 3 item displays - Test slides either had 2 or 3 items in the display - Infants looked longer at slides with a new numerical value (different from their habituation) - ** Study was also done in reverse. Habituated to 2 items then shown 3, infants looked longer at new 3 item display in test phase FURTHER RESEARCH SHOWS - Neonates: can discriminate small sets of numbers - 4 months: can discriminate up to 4 or 5 items - Infants can distinguish: elements in motion, actions, auditory and visual stimuli Explanations for Infants Sensitivity to Number - Preverbal counting mechanism= similar to what animals can do and related to symbol competence - Subitizing= rapid apprehension of number in small sets (4 or less) through perception alone, without counting What about Numerical Reasoning? - Wynn Research! - 5 month olds - Violation of Expectancy Paradigm - Addition Condition o Possible: 1 + 1 = 2 o Impossible: 1 + 1 = 1 - Subtraction Condition o Possible: 2 - 1 = 1 o Impossible: 2 1 = 2 ** In both conditions, infants looked longer at impossible condition - FOLLOW UP QUESTION: CONTROL o Do infants understand 1+1=2 or do they just realize number should have changed in some way? o Possible: 1+1=2 o Impossible: 1+1=3 o Infants looked longer at impossible event once again, so they do understand 1+1=2 o ** we may have predisposition for basic number processes Numbers and Culture - Cultural numeric practices vary and affect learning - Example: New Guinea body part numerical system = numerical abilities develop more slowly - Example: Chinese numerical symbols are more consistent and accessible - ** Situation also plays a role - Example: Brazilian candy vendors Chapter 5- Reasoning and Problem Solving Reasoning: Piagets View - Contrasts between Early-Childhood and Middle Childhood Cognition 1) Perceived Appearances vs. Inferred Reality o i.e. conservation tasks, preschool children are non-conservers because they base their judgements on how it LOOKS 2) Centration vs. Decentration o i.e. conservation tasks, preschool children are non-conservers because they focus on one single feature/limited portion of the stimulus array (heights capture their attention) 3) States vs. Transformations o Young children focus all of their attention on current states (ignorin
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