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Religious Studies
RELS 131

1 RELS 131B World Religions 2013 Week Two Lecture One Canaan: what is Israel and Lebanon today (Judaism, Christianity, Islam) Western Traditions - Eastern/Western traditions, the division between them is quite conventional  Even though these three religions arose in the Middle East they were widely adopted in the west and are not dominant in the Middle East, North and South America, and Africa  Abrahamic Origins: Christianity and Islam, like Judaism trace their roots to Abraham  Historical interactions between the three: they had more interactions with each other than with any other religious tradition Judaism - In its historical development, Judaism gave rise to two other world religions  Christianity (Post-Judaism)  Islam (Post-Christianity)  Christians and Muslims acknowledge their debt to the ideas and practices of the ancient Judaism  They are not bringing something out of nowhere - It is the older among the Western tradition, founded more than 3000 years ago at Mount Sinai by a divine revelation through Moses to the people of Israel - The Covenant: Jews believe that God expects all human beings to follow the same fundamental moral code (given to Noah after the flood) - Jews also understand themselves to be bound by subsequent covenant delivered Prophet Moses at Mount Sinai in a box containing the Ten Commandments Ten commandments (In Exodus 20:2-17) 1. You shall have no other god to set against me 2. You shall not make a carved image for yourself and you shall not bow down to them or worship them 3. You shall not make wrong use of the name of the Lord 4. Remember to keep the Sabbath day holy. You have 6 days to labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of the lord 5. Honor your father and mother 6. You shall not commit murder 7. You shall not commit adultery 2 RELS 131B 8. You shall not steal 9. You shall not give false evidence against your neighbor 10.You shall not desire your neighbor’s house, you shall not desire your neighbor’s wife, his slave, or anything that belongs to him Biblical Period - Judaism traces its origins to the beginning of man, as told in the old testament - More specifically it began with Abraham and the Hebrews around 1300 BCE who came from a town in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) - Abraham was called by God to migrate to Canaan (what is Israel and Lebanon today) - Abraham raised 2 sons:  Ishmael (father of the Arab peoples)  Isaac (the father of Israel) - God chooses Abraham to serve as an example of a righteous life. - The family of Abraham was the earliest to emphasize there is only one God who has no equal partners (Monotheism) - The descendants of Abraham first sent to Egypt and then after 400 years of oppression are led home by Moses - After a period of decline and suffering of Hebrews in Egypt, Moses under God’s direction led his people from slavery to the abundant life in God’s promised land (Israel) Genesis The first 11 chapters describe the prehistoric history of the universe; how the universe was created by God and it presents God as the creator of the world and established his relationship with humanity - The first 11 chapters in a sense provide the background that is ultimately why God had to choose a specific people and establish covenant (contract) with them to convey his ideas to the human race - In Genesis 12, we see God chooses Abraham for redemption and to serve as an example. Genesis 12-50 speaks of how God chose Abraham to be father of the Hebrews Exodus - There we find the account of Moses as a leader and lawgiver. Exodus tells us of the escape from Egypt, the covenant of Mount Sinai, the Ten Commandments, and the Mosaic Code of Law Sacred Texts 1. TORAH - Known as the five books of Moses  Most important section of the Jewish bible 3 RELS 131B  It consists of narratives and laws that have been recorded, in historical order, the beginning of the world all the way through to the death of Moses 2. TALMUD - Ultimate authority of law and the collection of rabbinic teachings  It has deep influence over the lives of Jews from the beginning of the Medieval period  It uses the rules of Torah an describes how to apply them to different circumstances 3. TANAKH - The complete Jewish Bible  Consists of the Torah (Nevi’im: The prophets) and (Ketuvim: the writings) Week Two Lecture Two Early history - The Jewish notion of history begins with the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) - Biblical history starts with the creation of the world by God (Yahweh) - Abraham is the first Patriarch or father of Hebrews - God makes a covenant with Abraham - The patriarchal narratives of the Bible (Genesis 12-50) relate events in the lives of four generations of patriarchs  These early fathers;  Abraham  His son Isaac  Isaacs son Jacob  11 of Jacob’s 12 sons  Sons of Joseph, Jacob’s favorite son - This sense of history moves forward through the patriarchs, matriarchs and Moses who spoke with God on the Mount Sinai - Moses led the people according to God’s commandments (Ten commandments) - The Prophets who carried God’s warnings to people who strayed from these commandments Judaism - Especially after the destruction of the Holy Center of Judaism, the Temple of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 CE Jewish history is characterized: 4 RELS 131B An exiled people who tried to find unity in their teachings and practices - These teachings and practices were codified in the compendium of Jewish Law (Talmud) - Our knowledge about the early Jewish history is largely based on the narrative of Tanakh - The theme of exiled reappears in the Hebrew bible who are repeatedly exiled from their home and consistently seek to return to it - This is where the importance of the concept of COVENANT comes into the picture Covenant - A unique belief in Jewish theology - The idea of a special contractual relationship between the Jewish people and God - In this contract, both are accountable - On people’s side: obedience to God - On the divine side: God is bound by his own ethical agreements to people and grant special favors - Earlier covenant: God establishes with Noah (God gives directions for the building of an ark) st  1ndovenant for the history of Jewish people: Abraham  2 Covenant: Jacob (Isaac’s son)  3 Covenant: Moses Abraham - An example of how the covenant should be in the biblical narrative - Abraham was born in Ur (modern day Iraq) migrated to Haran (modern day Turkey) and then God calls him to journey to Canaan - Without hesitation Abraham leaves the land of his father as well as the religion of his father - Again he undergoes circumcision without hesitation, a sign of covenant in which God agrees to be the protector of Abraham and his descendants (al males are circumcised on the 8 day after birth) - Again, God tests Abraham by asking him to sacrifice his son Isaac - All is to show that Abraham was a prime example of total obedience to God Struggle and Exodus - Jacob had one daughter and 12 sons, the 12 sons became the head of 12 tribes of Israel - The whole group leave Canaan for Goshen in Egypt during a famine - EXODUS the second book of the Tanakh tells us that descendants of Israel had become too many - The Pharaoh ordered that the citizens of Israel be turned into slaves for massive construction projects to prevent them from becoming too powerful 5 RELS 131B - Also to prevent the increase of the population the Pharaoh ordered to kill all boy babies born to the Israel women  The one who escaped this fate was MOSES  He was raised in the Palace by the Pharaoh’s daughter - We are told that Moses escapes from the country after killing an Egyptian who was beating and Israelite worker - While he lived in exile, the oppression of the Israelites in Egypt got worse - In the book of Exodus, God chooses Moses to defy the Pharaoh and lead the people out of bondage and of course out of Egypt  On a mountain, an angel appears and tells him: “Remove your sandals from your feet since the place on which you stand in holy ground” - Moses returns to Egypt with his brother Aaron (to ask as a spokesperson) - After numerous miracles and signs told in the chapters of exodus, the Pharaoh let the Israelites go - The redemption from bondage by the special protection of God: this is a central theme in Judaism Back the Canaan - God tells Moses he would lead the people back to Canaan - First though, it was necessary to travel to the Holy Mount Sinai to re- establish the covenant between God and Israelite people - Here is the ten commandments that were given on stone tablets - God also gives a set of social rules, religious feasts and instruction from construction of tabernacle with a holy ark, to ARK of COVENANT, to keep the stone tablets Moses received - Moses accepts the laws given in Mount Sinai and god free the Jews from Slavery and extinction in the hands of Egyptians and Jews accept the Torah David and First Temple - David, 2 King of Israel - He was chosen by the prophet Samuel st nd - When the 1 king of Israel Saul and his son were killed, David became the 2 King - David creates the beginning of stable Israelite Empire and makes Jerusalem its capital and brings the Ark of Covenant there Week Three Lecture One TUTORIAL REVIEW - Biblical period 1700 BCE-70CE - Begin is Genesis and Exodus (time of the patriarchs) - Genesis, Creation ofthhe world, the world language text, God created the world (God rests on the 7 day which creates the Sabbath) - Humanity created in the image of God 6 RELS 131B - Genesis explains why the world is the way it is now - Explains pain, morality, mortality, etc. - Adam and Eve eat from the tree of knowledge and evil, allowing them to establish the difference between the two - Time between Adam and Eve and Noah, humans become corrupt, they do not follow the laws of God and are not what God wanted - Only Noah and his family are deemed good - The flood, and all life has been destroyed - God establishes the first covenant, established by a rainbow, and God will never destroy humanity again - Long period of time between Noah and Abraham - God appears to Abraham and establishes a special relationship between Abrahams followers and God - God establishes and extension of the covenant with Noah - Tells Abraham to leave his home with his family and journey to the land of Haran (modern day Iraq) then journey into Canaan - Abraham unquestioned abides by gods law - God says that he will bless and protect Abraham due to his obedience, and he will extend the covenant to all of Abrahams descendants - (Key Moment in Genesis) God wanted to give Abraham one final test. He told Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac (his favorite son) - He is ready to kill his son until divine law steps in - Abrahamic Judaism, obedience to god - Abraham’s son is Isaac and Jacob, Jacob has 12 sons, The 12 sons give their names to the 12 tribes of Israel - Joseph Reuben, Simian, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulon, and Benjamin (Jacobs 12 sons) - Make their way to Egypt, eventually a Pharaoh comes to the throne who doesn’t like the Israel tribes - Decides to turn them into slaves to build the monuments of Egypt (enslaved for many centuries) - God hears the cries, and uses Moses to save the Israelites - Moses leads the Israelites to Mount Sinai - God expands the covenant to the people of Israel - For the first time in the desert, the Israelites become a people, rather than a collection of tribes - - The Israelites stray from the covenant with God, and they build and idol upon which God decrees that they will spend 40 years wandering in the desert due to their disobedience - Moses dies in the desert, and Joseph leads the people into Canaan - Time of the Judges, chiefs of the Jews and who will lead them in Military victories - The leadership of the judges is not sufficient - They decide to institute kingship 7 RELS 131B - (TIME OF THE KINGS) chosen by god and the people - Saul, David, and Salomon (The Kings) - Israel is now a Kingdom, now a military leader and a dispenser - Solomon is important because he builds the first temple. - Centralized worship, priests (below the king in power) sacrificial offerings etc. - After Solomon’s death in 921BCE, the kingdom splits into two because not all of the people of Israel were comfortable with the religious function being put upon them, and he wanted to assimilate the Canaan practices and the Israelite practices - North Kingdom: Israel (10 of the tribes) South Kingdom: Judah (temple of Jerusalem) (two tribes) - Northern Kingdom take over by Assyrian (722 BCE) - Southern Kingdom endures for a few more centuries until invaded by the Babylonians who destroy the temple - The King of the Babylonian empire moves the Jews into Babylon Babylonian - Ancient kingdom to religious heritage of widely dispersed people - Much more urban, and laws and rituals are refashioned - Cinagog replaces formal worship - The Jews have been forced into exile, their king is gone, the line of kingship has ended, and there is a longing for the reparation of sovereignty or a longing for an apocalypse - 538BCE Syros of Persia conquers Babylon, allowing the Jews to return to Jerusalem although many decide to stay in Babylon - Those who return (515BCE) rebuild the temple under the leadership of Ezra - During this period of reclaiming ownership of Judaea, and Jerusalem - All books are edited into the Torah - 331BCE Alexander the Great conquers Persia Hellenistic Age - Comes under the influence of Greek language, philosophy, and architecture - Bible is translated into Greek - Conflicts begin to begin to develop between those who want to follow Hellenistic forms and those who feel as if these new ways are infringing on the ways of Judaism (resulting in violence) - 198(BCE) Seleucid’s conquer Judaea - 168BCE raised the temple of Jerusalem and transforms it into the temple of Zeus - The Torah was no longer the law, they would follow Seleucid law 166 BCE Maccabean - Intended to get rid of the Seleucid’s - The revolt in 164 BCE The Seleucid’s are driven out and the community comes together in a festival known as Hanukah  (Passover commemorates the freedom from the Egyptians) - 64BCE Roman General Pompeii captures Jerusalem 8 RELS 131B  Sadducees (assimilate Hellenistic ways of life, insist of literal interpretations of the law) top of the social pyramid  Pharisees (The only ones to survive the revolt against Rome, land owners, middle class, broad interpretation of scripture, and ritual)  Essenes (Group of orthodox priest who retire to the desert to establish purity which they believed the coming apocalypse)  Zealots (Reject roman domination, revolt against Rome) - 66CE Revolt against Rome, crushed by Romans in 70CE destroyed the temple in Jerusalem and Jerusalem - Marks a major turning point in Jewish history, temple worship is gone. - Only the Pharisees are left. - Fragile time Rabbinic Period - Custodians of ritual, to preserve and write to Jewish law and tradition - 70CE to 700CE (common era) - Pharisees reach a compromise with Rome, limited local power, allowing a title to signify the Jewish leader - The Jews achieve stability on their own - Temple is gone, religious observance in daily life is brought up - Cinagog becomes a building where Jews meet to study, pray and celebrate - The rabbi begins to write down traditions and laws - “On Mount Sinai, Moses did not just receive written laws but also moral laws” The Rabbi writes down these laws - Interpreting and reinterpreting these laws - The bible is known as the Tanakh, consisting of three sections (Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim) - Midrash is the interpretations of the Tanakh - 220CE Mishnah which continues the tradition of interpreting Tanakh and the Midrash - Talmud which is the chain of interpretation is the interpretation on the Mishnah - “Every discussion of holy law and procedure, all considered art of the same” Week Three Lecture One Exile and the Second Temple - David and the king - Solomon and the first temple - Internal revolt and Judah - The Babylonian Exile - Covenant and God’s promise - Persian King Cyrus Conquers - Jews return to Jerusalem 9 RELS 131B - Establishing the Second temple Hellenistic Judaism - Persians falls to Alexander the Great in 331 BCE - Influences Hellenism and tension - The Maccabean Revolt against Greek-Syrian oppressors - Maccabean Revolt – Hanukkah - First century sects (Sadducees, Pharisees, Essenes) - Essenes (The authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls) - Conflicts among Hesmoneans (Maccabean) and Civil war Roman Period - Roman General Pompey takes over the Judea in 63 BCE - The Revolt of anti-Roman group “Zealots” in 66CE - Jerusalem falls to the Romans in 70CE - Romans destroy the Jewish Temple - Only remaining part from this event: Western Wall - Judaea was renamed as Palestine after the ancient Philistines Influences (Hellenistic Judaism and Roman Empire period) - Philosophy (Greek philosophy and Torah in harmony) - The Concept of God (allegorical rather than literal) - Concept of Messiah and the mergence of Apocalyptic Literature (result of the roman oppressions) Rabbinic Judaism - Turning point in Jewish history: fall of Jerusalem in 70CE (No temple and Center anymore) - Jewish Heritage was preserved by Rabbies - Religious Law becomes the principal means to fulfill the covenant with god - Rabbinic movement was not hereditary priesthood Rabbinic Judaism 3 Important Developments in this Period 1. The Institution of Synagogue 2. Recording Jewish communities traditions in text 3. Development of Jewish law Rabbinic Judaism - No temple meant the community gained new importance - Jews met in Synagogue - The most important point here is that religion centered in books and teachings rather than in a geographical location or priesthood - This was to gain a sense of unity across time and space 10 RELS 131B Rabbinic Interpretation - Rabbis interpretation of bible called Midrash - Two types of interpretation:  (A) Legal decisions called HALAKHAH  (B) Non-legal teaching called HAGGADAH - Two important Rabbis from this period (Hillel the elder and Rabbi Akiva) - Oral Torah known as Mishnah Rabbinic Interpretation - Mishnah becomes the basic study text for Rabbinic academies in Judaea and Babylonia - There are 2 Talmud’s: Both have the same Mishnah but only commentaries are different - Jerusalem Talmud - Babylonia Talmud Week Three Lecture Two The Rabbinic Judaism (cont’d) Medieval and Early Modern Period Recording the Scripture: Tanakh - TORAH  Genesis  Exodus  Leviticus  Numbers  Deuteronomy - Nevt’Im  Joshua  Judges  Samuel I  Samuel II  Kings I  Kings II  Isalah  Jeremiah  Ezekiel - Kethuvim The Writings  Pslams  Proverbs  Job  The song of the sons  Ruth 11 RELS 131B  Lamentations  Ecclesiastes  Esther  Daniel Ezra  Nehemiah  Chronicles I  Chronicles II Rabbinic interpretation - Rabbis interpretation of the bible is called the MIDRASH - Two types of interpretation  (A) Legal decisions called HALAKHAH  (B) Non-legal teachings called HAGGADAH  Oral Torah known as MISHNAH (summary of Oral Law, arranged by topic) - Mishnah becomes the basic study text for Rabbinic academics in Judaea and Babylon - There are two Talmuds: both have the same Mishnah but only commentaries (Gemarah) are different  Jerusalem Talmud  Babylonian Talmud - TALMUD: JEWISH LAW - All three elements (Torah, Mishnah and Gemarah) make up Talmud - But only the first two (Torah and Mishnah) have the full power of the law Early Founders of Rabbinic Judaism - Hilel the Elder  Taught from about 30BC the 10 overlapping with the life of JESUS  Significance: Felxible interpretation of the Torah applying to biblical teachings to the contemporary lives of Jews and different cultural circumstances - Rabbi Akiva (50-135)  He had great influence on the systemization of the Halakhah  Under Akiva’s leadership the Jewish canon (Tanahk) was fixed in 90 Rabbinic Period Karaite Revolt - Karaite: 8 and 9 century movement but they still exist today - Anti-Rabbinic Judaism - They rejected the authority of Talmud and Mishnah Significance - The break with the Babylonian Talmudic tradtion - The Karaite revolt took place in Iran in the 8 century 12 RELS 131B - Its leader was Anan ben David - The PRINCIPAL: “search thoroughly into the torah and do not depend upon any opinion” - In fact: Karaites totally rejected the oral Torah (MISHNAH) and asked for reliance on the bible alone - This created complete revolt against the Rabbinic Judaism Development of Jewish Law 1. Passage by passage commentary on Talmud text (including Gemarah and Mishnah) 2. Responsa (TESHUVAH) Litterature: (rulings made by expert rabbis in response to question posed by people in the Jewish community) 3. Periodic Codification of the Growing legal heritage (classifying legal material topically to clarify what should be done in different situations) Medival and Early Modern - Judaism in the middle ages  Medeival Jewish Theology and Philosophy  (Saadia, Yehuda Ha-Levi and Maimondies) - Early Modern Period  Jewish Mysticism  Kabbalah and Hasidism Medieval Period - Geographically divided into two groups 1. SEPHARDIM (Mediterranean: Spain, Portugal, Italy, Turkey, North Africa, Middle East) 2. ASHKENAZIM (Eastern Europe, Mainly in Germany, later persecution caused migration to Poland, Hungary, Romania, Russia, and some France and England - Jewish lived as minorities both under the Muslim and Christian rules in this period - When Baghdad becomes capital city of Abbasid Empire in the 8 century Jewish life concentrates around Baghdad - Muslim treatment of the Jews as the “people of book” (Ahl al-Kitab) - In the Medieval period life under Islamic rule was more tolerant and intellectually exciting than Christian counterparts due to Islam’s advancement in comparison to Christian Europe) - Under the climate, Medieval Jewish Philosophy developed - 3 important figured from this period 1. Saadia (882-942) 2. Yehuda Ha-Levi (1075-1141) 3. Maimondies 13 RELS 131B Saadia (882-942) - Gaon in the Academy of Babylonian, translates bible into Arabic IMPORTANCE 1. Defender of Rabbinic Judaism against the teachings of the Karaites 2. Philosophical writings: “No tension between reason and revelation” Yehuda Ha-Levi - Born in Toledo, Spain - Poet and Philosopher (The Kuzari) Moses Maimonides - The most important figure in the Medival Period and later Judaism - The most famous of all Jewish philosophers - Known as RAMBAM (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) - First lives in Spain (Almohads, become refugee at 14) - Fled to Morocco, Palestine, and then to Egypt where he lived - Worked as a physician in the court of the Muslim Sultan Salah al-Din (Saladin) Significance 1. Writing the code of Jewish Law: Mishneh Torah (written in Hebrew, “Renewal of the Law”) Maimondies was able to substitute this book for the Babylonian Talmud as the centerpiece of legal education 2. THE GUIDE OF THE PERPLEXED: (Written in Arabic with Hebrew characters) became an important book not only in Jewish philosophy but also in Islamic philosophy 3. Promoted a view of Judaism as Thoroughly Rational (Platonism=abstract and Aristotelianism=analytic observation) Early Modern Period - Early modern period begins with the mass expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492 - Christians took control of Granada and most of Andalusia Region th - Most Jews left Spain and came to Ottoman Turkish Empire in early 15 century (Ladino Dialect) - The Spiritual Crisis born out of the Expulsion and living in Ghettos resulted in developing Jewish Mysticism KABBALAH AND HASIDISM - Historical context: expulsion from Spain and after 1555, Jews in Italy and Germany were forced to live in Ghettos (Poland became a haven) Jewish Mysticism - Esoteric teachings developed known as Kabbalah (12 but now gained prominence) 14 RELS 131B - The most important book is ZOHAR (way of Splendor) a complex of stories, explanations of estoric levels of the Torah (Author: Moses ben Shemtov of Leon, d. 1305) - Scholars of Kabbalah studied the mysteries or hidden truths of the Torah HASIDISM (Pietism) - Founder is Israel ben Eliezer known as Baal Shem Tov (1698-1759) - The path of Ecstatic piety, developed in Ukraine and Poland - Torah study and obedience to the letter of law were not superior since the divine could be found everywhere - Eastern Europe Jews followed Hasidism - The importance of the concept of the Tzaddik (Enlightened sain or teacher) - Tzaddik’s prayer or wisdom would be more powerful than their own relationship with god - Opposition from non-Hasidic leaders JUDAISM TIMELINE 1900-1700BCE: - Abraham the first Patriarch 1300-1200BCE: - Moses leads the Exodus from Egypt 1207BCE: - Israelites present in Canaan 1010-970BCE - David the King of Judah and Israel, takes Jerusalem and makes it his capital 961-931BCE - King Solomon builds the first temple of Jerusalem 922BCE: - Northern Kingdom separates following Solomon’s death 722BCE: - Fall of Northern Kingdom of Israel to Assyria 586BCE: - Fall of Southern Kingdom of Judah to Babylon (first temple destroyed, Jews exile to Babylon 586-535BCE: - Exile in Babylonia 538BCE: - Persians conquer Babylon and permit exiled Jews to return 535BCE: - Jews return to Jerusalem 515BCE: - Second Temple of Jerusalem built 430BCE: - Torah read to the public by Ezra the Scribe 15 RELS 131B 167-164BCE: - Maccabean Revolt and rededication of the Temple after Maccabean uprising *TURNING POINT IN JEWISH HISTORY* 70BCE: - Jerusalem falls to the Romans and Second Temple destroyed - Comparable to the Babylonian exile in the 6 century BCE 90: - Jewish Canon of Tanakh set 200: - Mishnah Compiled 500: - Babylonian Talmud completed 942: - Saadia, Gaon dies 1095: - Crusaders begin (killing Jews in Europe) 1135-1204: - Life of Moses Maimonides 1478: - Spanish Inquisition begins 1492: - Expulsion of Jews from Spain 1654: - Jews Began to Settle in North America 1666: - Sabbatai Zvi promoted as the Messiah 1745-1760 - Israel ben Eliezer the Ba’al Shem Tov begins Hasidism in Poland 1897: - Theodor Herzl and the first Zionist congress 1933-1945: - The Holocaust 1935: - Nuremberg Laws 1947: - Discovery of the dead sea scrolls 1948: - Establishment of Israel as an independent state 1967: - The six-day war 1972: - First woman Rabbi 2003: - Security wall under construction by Israel 16 RELS 131B 2009: - First black female Rabbi TUTORIAL REVIEW KARAITES - Founded in the 8 century - Jews who reject the authority of the Talmud (interpretation of the laws set forward in the Mishnah) - Only the bible should be followed (they believe) - Also reject every festival that is not mentioned in the bible - Emphasize simplicity - Flourishing in Muslim controlled area - They are opposed to the Rabbinic influence Medieval Period Moses Maimonides - His main goal was to resolve the tension between reason and revelation - Believed that humans as individuals in the sight of God have two key feature, rationality, and morality - Use and training of ones reason leads to moral behavior and therefore misfortunes and setbacks that happen to individuals who are rational and moral are a part of Gods actual plan Sephardim - Spain, Portugal, Italy Ashkenazim - Germany, migrated to Easter Europe and Russian - Lived as minorities under Christian dominance - Migrated in huge numbers to north America Saadia - Translated the Hebrew bible into Arabic - Philosopher - Defended the religion - Influence for Moses Maimonides - Believed that Judaism is the only divine that reveals truth, but human reason would reveal the same truth - Addressed some of the issue of reconciling contradictions that resulted from the combining of a diverse range of biblical sources into one 17 RELS 131B - Whenever biblical reading contradict something one must read it allegorically Yehuda Ha-Levi - Poet and Philosopher born in Christian dominated Spain - (1) Eternity of Israel, The survival of the Israelites through the survival through events - Believed to be God’s special interest in these people - Islam and Christian have a function in the world as appropriate stepping stones towards the ultimate truth within Judaism Early Modern Period - 1492 The Christian monarchs of Spain conquer Granada which was the last Muslim stronghold taken over by the Christians - The expulsion of the Jews from Spain followed - Two reactions: some Jews converted to Christianity although did not escape questioning and a potential threat - Most of the Jews left for the Ottoman Turkish Empire - Mysticism: Kabbalah (12 Century)  Invested in not interpreting legal nature of Judaism but finding the secret underlying truth of biblical scripture  Conception: God was anthropomorphic (2) divine sparks  Believed in ecstatic trances  Magic  Came up with apocalyptic writing  The balance of the world is affected by human behavior  Evil is the result of imbalance  Righteous action helps god reach balance  **Isaac Luria: found aesthetic mystics  Through meditation, magic and acts of piety and righteousness can help the universe  Observes the rules of Judaism to restore balance to the world  Sabbatai Zvi: 1666: Follower of Kabbalah movement, proclaimed a messiah  Many followers  Imprisoned and given the choice of death or converting to Islam  Reason, a way of fulfilling evil and conquering it from within  - Pietism: Hassidism  Humility, good deeds, prayer, seeking god in everyday life instead/before rigorous attention to the Torah  Founded by: Israel Ben Eliezer (Baal Sehm Tov) (End of the 1600’s)  Born in Romania 18 RELS 131B  Wandered from community to community making ordinary people his disciples Modern Judaism - Napoleonic period 1799  Liberty, equality, eternity  Internal attempt in Judaism to figure out how to live in the Hostile European Society  Liberal ideals to come to terms with the Jewish presence  Development of Three divergences in Judaism  Reform o Judaism should be solely a religion not a nationality or ethnicity o Jews who live in a host country should assimilate within their cultural practices the culture language and customs of that host country o Rabbis feared a loss of Jewish identity o Believed that ethical behavior is the essence of Judaism and that laws traditions and ceremonies can be change to further integration  Conservative o Took the middle ground that some laws should be changed or eliminated o Only customs that were developed in the last few centuries were open for change not biblical traditions  Orthodox o Believes in preservation of tradition and law o Opposed to integration - Zionism sprang up in the 1800’s  Takes old Jewish desire of return to the homeland  And turn it into a political movement that is predominantly aspired by a political movement going on it Europe called Nationalism  Founded by Theodore Herzl  Believed that anti-Semitism was so deeply entrenched in Europe and the only ways Jews could live as themselves would be in their own land and set their own laws 20 Century - Holocaust - A third of the worlds Jews were killed during the Holocaust - Made Jewish people question god’s purpose with them - 1947: newly formed united nations, and part of Palestine was given to the Jews to create Israel (surrounding Arab countries opposed) 19 RELS 131B CHRISTIANITY TUTORIAL REVIEW - Christianity revolves around Jesus - One must believe that Jesus is the lord and savior of the world and is God’s son - Life span is place between 3BCE 33CE - Died in his early 30’s - Know of his life from the Gospels, and his disciples - Jesus was born in Bethlehem (Jewish) - Lived in Nassourath - Learned his fathers trade, (carpentry/construction) - Don’t know anything about him before age 12 which is where he discussed the Jewish interpretation of the Law with priests in the Temple - (Another gap) At age 30 he is baptized by his older cousin john tha Baptist - He see’s the holy spirit descending from heaven like a dove - Interprets this to be a call to ministry (his travelling and preaching of ethical form of Judaism) - After this inspiration he withdraws into the wilderness for 40 days where he is tempted by Satan to use his powers for evil - He resists the temptations - Returns and recruits 12 disciples, (fishermen and poor folk) - Travels around Judea preforming healing miracles and teaching ethical Jewish law instead of pure ritual - Tells parabolas that involve the sense of an impending apocalypse that will result in the institution of a peaceful righteous time - The Sunday before pass over (palm Sunday) arrives into Jerusalem on a donkey - Disciples following him - Causes a disturbance at the temple by objecting the charging of money to enter the temple - He is positioning himself as a threat to the priesthood - In the garden of Yosemite Jesus is arrested and brought before the Roman Governor - Accused of perverting the people, claiming to be king of the Jews and in sighting rebellion against order and Rome - Found guilty and sentenced to a common form of execution in Roman form - Paraded through the streets and is crucified on a hill called Golgotha - His body is placed in the tomb and two days later women arrive at his tomb only to find his body missing - The important thing about Christianity is that it began as a Jewish sect - Anyone could become a Christian - Missionary religion (disciples were converting people) - Jesus did not regard himself as an innovator but as a … - Wanted his people to live up to the rules that were already present - Ethics of Mosaic law 20 RELS 131B - For the first three centuries Christians undergo persecution from the Roman empire - Some emperors tried to exterminate as many Christians as they could find - Christianity appealed to poor folk, offered them a hope of a better life after this one - Religion of the Roman empire, New Testament is created - The Gospels: Mark, Luke, and Matthew: share a unified perspective - Jesus as a Messiah - The Gospel of Mark which is thought to be the earliest: Covers Jesus in his maturity preaching in the country side, Jesus as having a divine revelation, and preaching his ethical message to the people - Covers his retreat into the wilderness - Temptation by Satan - Miracles of healing - Details his disputes with the Pharisees - Jesus, on the Sabbath heals and picks grains, object the rigorous acceptance of the Sabbath which the Pharisees see as Jesus’s arrogance - Goes to Jerusalem: “coming of a king” - During this week in Jerusalem - Arrested, Judas turns his back on Jesus (disciple) - Jesus appears to his 11 remaining disciples after his death, and says to spread the word of his truths (Mark) - Luke, Jesus’s birth, born into and destined as his journey into a Messiah - After his birth, angels inform the Sheppard’s that a messiah has been born - Pilot issues the execution - Gospel of Matthew: persuade a Jewish audience as Jesus as a Messiah - Bio of Jesus to a previous Hebrew scripture - Matthew and Luke are the only sources of the Virgin birth - Gospel of Matthew: Jesus’s Passion - Universal messiah and savior (cosmic) - John begins at creation: God as Logos (creative redemptive word of God Word of God) divine intelligence, and purpose - Jesus is the incarnation, flesh and blood from of Logos (God) - Because God loves the world so much, he sends his only son forward to be sacrificed. - John offers which helped the spread of Christianity, you overcome death - Paul: began as a Pharisee Jew in Turkey, went to Jerusalem to study Judaism - While he was traveling, he had a vision of Christ after his resurrection which inspired him to convert to Christianity and to travel and share the word - He corresponded with the scattered Christian communities with letters which were written before the Gospels were composed - Rejects the idea that one must first become a Jew to follow Jesus - Redemption from sin was dependent on faith Paul - Unrestricted access to roman communities 21 RELS 131B - Laid the foundation for ideas that would dominate Christian doctrine - He believed that salvation is not attained through observing rituals but solely through faith for Jesus - Redemption from sin is dependent on faith and not following rituals - Humans are apparently sinful - Distingueshed between life in the spirit (hope faith love) and life in the flesh (the pursuit of pleasure such as wealth ambition and bodily pleasures) - Lead to the christian doctrine of repressing the body - Early Christianity defined itself in opposition to figures who rose to challenge the core tenants of Christian philosophy - Marcion: 160(died)  Believed that the old testament features a cruel god calles him demiurge  The coming of jesus heralded a new god who was loving and merciful  Rejects the gospel of matthew  Rejects all Hebrew scriptures  Leads to people turning aginsnt him  It must trace its lineage back to Hebrew scripture  He is significant because he pushed the church to accpt Hebrew scripture Gnosticism: began as a school of thought that claimed it had secret knowledge of scripture and the life of jesus - Believed in a divine good - Jesus took on human form because he came from a spiritual realm - Matter is evil, anything that provides physical comfort should be avoided - Christian doctrine developed due to these accepted the idea of the devil as gods antagonist - Scattered communities that has unordain teachers - With time (century or so) ordained positions for rituals - Priests, bishop (only ones able to confirm baptism) Arch Bishops (leaders) Patriarchs (began with 4, Alexandria, Rome, Jerusalem Antioch) - Christians are heavily persecuted by the romans - Accused of incest, cannibalism, black magic, killing babies, etc. - Christians are to be killed, churches destroyed etc. Constantine - A vision of a cross before a battle which gave him the empire - Converted to Christianity - 313 he gave Christianity tolerance in the roman empire - 321 Sunday becomes a public holiday - empire doesn’t become fully Christian until Theodoseous (381) - Communal beliefs known as creed’s  Apostles Creed: main statement of fate - 325 Constantine calls a council of bishiops to Niciah 22 RELS 131B - and establishes the - Nicene Creed: Orthodox Christianity  One god, Jesus is the only begotten son of God, Jesus is made incarnate by the holy spirit by the virgin Mary, Prosecution, Reserection, Acceptance into heaven and being on the right hand of God  The holy spirit precedes from the God and the holy son  Believes in the reserection of the dead  Main Principals of Christianty in the early days - Doctrine of the trinity which preoccupied the century - God, the father, Jesus the sn an redeemer, Holy spirit, for comfort after Jesus leaves the world - Arius (Priest): Died 336 believed that the son of God is not eternal - Athanasius, Died 373 Believed that the father and son are equal and eternal  Dispute between opinions and Athanasius wins dispute - Fourth century preoccupied with the trinity of God Jesus and the Holy spirit th - 5 Century of God in Christ - Divisions that have become a unified church begin to grow - Bisantine Empire - Political divisions introduces a religious division Catholic and Greek orthodox - Two sects which came about in the 5 Century (Nestorians & Monophysites) - Both are based near Constantinople - Nestorians supposted the view that Logos (The word of God) was distinct from the human jesus and controlled him, Mary was the beared of not a divine figure but of a man - Monophysites the human in jesus was fully replaced by the divine therefore only having one nature - When theodosoues in 450, another council of bishops (Chalcedon) was called upon and made a middle ground between the Nestorians and Monophyites, saying Christ has two natures, divine and human - Two forms of Christianity began to grow further apart - 1054 Roman Christianity and Greek Christianity separate - Greek represents like photos and icons for a focus of prayer, also permit their clergy to marry but their bisops must stay not married, refused to recognize the supremecy of the pope - 7 and 8 centurys the orthodox Greek speaking bisintine empire was quite stable while the Latin Roman Chrsitianity was fractures - Both Greek orthodox and the Roman catholic church embrarked on attempting to spread their versions of the christen method especially in Easter Europe at the time - Some arts of Eastern Europe have a Latin based tradtion while other arts are Greek Orthodox - Roman Catholic: The chief figure was known as the chief patriarch until the POPE - The Pope has unchallegend church authority 23 RELS 131B - Roam was especially important because it was the site of st. peter, and all of the popes trace their linniage back to st. Peter - The empire crashed the church became the primarcy source of order and continuity in the wartorn fractured community. Barbarians were also converted to Christianity - Paul: CRUCIAL FIGURE - Augustine: 354-430 CRUCIAL FIGURE: Pagan father Crhsitan mother, studied Plato and Rederict. He was educated. Between 20-30 are Medican which is an offshoot of Nosticism, After the age of 30 he had a vivid conversion experience and became Christian and became a bishop in north Africa and wrote and campaigned heavily against haristy. Shaped medival christianty. Set forth the idea that guilt, and set the pattern for medival Christ philosophy of allies and faith - WORKS: 1 Confessions: Sturggles to become Christian and 2 The City of god: which asserted that all human culture and institutions have no enduring value in the sight of god, Kings who dominated, they get their right to rule from heaven however, standing between God and the King as deputy is the Cuhrch and more specifically the pope set the stage for early modern beliefs which csaused conflict - The only way to salvation was to faith in the grace of God which with time the church strayed away from - Medival Period stretched from 500 to about 1500 which then was the beginning fo the rennasance which is considered the early modern period Medieval Period - Monasticism, St. Benedict Charlemange, popes vs. princes - Great Schism - Crusades, Pope Urban ii 1095 - Sainthood, Mary & Doctrine of immaculate conception Scholasticism (Thomas Aquinas) Mysticism: Protestant Reformation Period - Humanism (Erasmus) - Spread of literacy (Gutenberg) - Martin Luther (divine grace/faith, priesthood of all believers) Counter Reformation (Catholic) - Council of Trent 1545-63 - Jesuits and missionary work (India, Japan, China) - Spanish and Portuguese Colonialism (Latin America) Modern Period - 18 Century: Deism, philosophical skepticism (Kant, Hume, Hegel) - 19 Century: Sociology (Marx, Weber) Evolution (Darwin) archeology in Ancient Near East - Scientific approaches to Biblical criticism 24 RELS 131B th - 20 Century: Social justice movements (liberation theology, social gospel) psychology, ecumenism, search for historical Jesus (Schweitzer)  Vatican I (1869-1870)  Vatican ii (1962-1965) - Medevial Christianity: monasticism - Either all male or all female communities took vows of selebacy, chasticity, poverty etc. - Saint Benedict is one of the founders of monasticism, laid down instructions - 480-550 in Italy (Sain tBEnedict) - Monostaries preserved ancient learning, functioned as preservers of the intellectual legacy in Greece and Rome which was lost due to the barbarian invasion - Monataries were under criticism because they had gained a lot of wealth - 800 the German King Charlemaine is crowned Emporer of the holy roman empire by pope leo the third - Germanic based kingdom, heir to Rome - Corrination initiated tention between pope’s vs. princes - Depicted the church as the king maker - Struggle between popes vs princes, kings deposed popes and popes deposed kings - Grew very rich from tax revenues - Eventually a compromise was reached: Pope holds the swords and delegates the power of the sword to the king - Internal strife within the catholic church - GREAT SCHISM: Two contemdors: Two popes supported by different kings - Resolved in 1414 - Crusades: 1095 Initiated by Pope Urban the 2 nd - Reclaim the holy land of Jerusalem from the Muslims - Tolerated the Christian presence in the area by the 11 century a new wave of Turkish muslims came in and kicked out the Christians - Angered the Bisentine empire - 2 centuries Jerusalme shifted between Mulim and Christian lands - The fourth crusade plundered Constantinople - Crusades were unorganized - Significant not only because they furthered the split between western and eastern Europe Christianity they also brought in Europe intellectual horizons - Brought back Plato and Aristoltle - Criteria for Sainthood was developed during this period - Offically recognized by the church, have particular occupations and particular days of which they are worshiped - Virgin Mary becomes popular for worship and devotion - Object of theological debate 25 RELS 131B - Mary was born without original sin, meaning jesus was born that way as well - Dualism: (Began with agnositic beliefs) Santan and God - Sins vs. Virtues - Seven holy virtures and the Seven deadly sins - People who disagreed with church doctrine, condemmed by church authoirties, secular authorities burned these people at the stake - 1233 Pope Gregory decalred the Heritics had to be exumed and tried for their heriticts - Time of great fear and paranoia about people who disagreed with established doctrine - Scholasticism: theological and philosocial - Primary advocate was Thomas Aquinas - Reconcile faith and reason through logical arguments on rediscovered works or Aristotle and Plato - Mysticiams: spiritual - Scholasticism: intellectual Prodestant Reformation Period - Primary mover, Martin Luther who was against the abuses of the church and interfereance in worldy matters - Martin luther had two important ideas: Recieed redemption through faith and personal connections between you and god instead of priests - Ideas spread throughout Europe due to the spread of literacy - Economical and efficient to print out pamphlets and translations of the Bible - Humanism: distinguished from scholasticism both believe in human reason although divorcces human reason from theology - Reformation was also marked by division and diversity - Lutherans, Anglicans, and Calvinists ALL prodestant but have different ways on interpretation - 1545 1663 Church recognized that there was a need to correct the churches abuses - Got rid of indulgences reaffrmied catholic doctrine - Jessuits: missionary work LECTURE NOTES Slides 5.2 Christianity, Origins Overview - Central figures: Jesus - Judaism & Islam: Prophets and Prophecy - History and God’s plan - Jewish concept of history - Old covenant/new covenant 26 RELS 131B Key Topics - Life and teachings of Jesus - Evolution of the religion - 1 Century: Independent new religion - 4 century: Imperial Religion th - 11 century: Latin church (goes its own way from the Greek) - 16 Century: Northern Europeans rebellion against the Roman Pope in the Protestant Reformation - 19 and 20 Century: Impact of Modernity & Change Christianity Origins Historical Sequence - Origins: Jesus to Paul (27-60) - Imperial Christianity (4 century) - Medieval/Latin Period (500-1500) - Protestant Reformation (Post-1500) - Enlightenment (18 Century) - Modern Period Overview - How the Christian message emerged - How its interpretation developed and transformed over the centuries - What was the manifestations of Christianity in societies and different cultures Life of Jesus & Historical Settings - Historical evidence and references - Born as a Jew in the land of Israel (childhood in Nazareth, on hillside in Greek-speaking region Galilee) - Historical settings: Jews - A degree of political freedom since the Maccabean revolt (BCE 167) - King of Judaeans, Herod the Great (installed with Roman backing) - Torah interpretation (disputes between Sadducees and Pharisees) - Essenes: Rejection of priesthood as corrupt and pious practices, waiting for divine intervention and spiritual purity - Expectations of a messiah, saving the people from foreign oppression - Many apocalyptic texts circulating - Increased taxes and economic difficulties under Roman rule - Urban armed resistance: 66-70 CE: Revolt of Zealots  General historical picture before the birth of Jesus and in the early period Life of Jesus - For many Christians, true story of Jesus and his teachings is found in the Bible since it is regarded as the Word of God 27 RELS 131B - Particularly first 4 books of the New Testament called GOSPELS (Good news): Mark, Luke, Matthew and John - Names are given: Matthew and John: Jesus’s followers/Mark and Luke: Apostle Paul’s companions - Written about 40-60 years after Jesus’ death - Based on oral transmissions of stories and narratives - First written in Greek and Aramaic then translated into many - Offer a complete picture of - 3 Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) are similar views, “Synoptic Gospels” (Jesus’s career) But John is different  Matthew: Represents Jesus as a kind of second Moses as well as the messiah (with reference to the Old testament) Emphasis: Gentiles (non-Jews) accept Jesus but not Jews  Luke: Jesus’s mission as universal and Jesus’s ministry to the poor and lower classes  John: (difference of the Gospel of John): See’s Jesus as the eternal son of God and the word of God made in flesh. Jesus as incarnation and manifestation of the divine Word, (the LOGOS): God can create the world through his word and can command the world
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