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SOCY 122
Rob Beamish

Millennials  Characteristics: p.6-10 o Small Close Families o See parents positively o Share parental values o Parental involvement o Rely on adult direction, assurance o Powerful sense of individualism  Constantly told how much they control their own destiny o Less historical awareness and fewer life - experiences o Multi tasking o Impatient o Their lives have been thoroughly planned and organized - and closely monitored o First to grow up surrounded by digital media. o Because of their direct access to so much information, they are politically aware but less sceptical than their parents were.  Benoit mindset list o Paper released yearly describing the incoming first university student mindset o Technological age o [Members of the Class of 2016] are the first generation to grow up taking the word “online” for granted and for whom crossing the digital divide has redefined research, original sources and access to information, changing the central experiences and methods in their lives.  The Medium is the message: p.15-16 o This means that the message is irrelevant the real message is the medium in which the message is conveyed. Whether that be film, books, oral presentation. o McLuhan identified active media in relation to “hot” and “cold” media  Hot Media – Media that requires a lot less active interpretation e.g. Film  Cold Media – Media that requires more active interpretation e.g. books, comic books. o Though the new wave of e-Culture is great, students must learn to go back and use print-Culture that will help them reach the higher learning they’re attempting to achieve.  Liberal Education o Liberal education that students can receive is decreasing. Bloom believed the liberal education was a great opportunity to help students pose important questions like who am i? and what is humankind? Bloom believed that “each generation can be best discovered by its relations to the permanent concerns of mankind.” Mills’ Sociological Imagination  Definitions o What is the Sociological Imagination? P.38-39  "the vivid awareness of the relationship between experience and the wider society."  "men see their lives as a series of traps"  Imagination p.38-39  Involves carrying mental processes and the active role of the mind, both of which are central.  Apprehending process – a way of creating a complex mental image of the world by developing an increasingly more comprehensive mental view of the relationship between an individual and their social location.  It is the quality of mind that requires one to grasp the social context intellectually, and draw it together.  The individual and social can be drawn together and examined as a dynamic whole.  It is the mental understanding of the world as it actually is through an approach that allows people to understand more than they would by using normal, everyday stocks of knowledge. Enables individuals to understand themselves and  their experience. o What is the natural attitude? P.38 It comes naturally to us it is the way we view the world as an individual Using the example of Psycho: one must move the camera back to make the intricate connection between the patterns of the lovers lives and the course of American and world history. Requires the quality of mind that integrates macro and micro, the social and the individual. o What are “everyday stocks of knowledge”? p. 29 Basic knowledge that people learn not from school, but from everyday life, this also reinforces us as individuals.  Importance of Sociological Imagination o It asks us to think outside the box and think a way that many don’t o By imagination mills doesn’t mean to make things up but to analyse and assess the social world in which we live.  Personal Troubles of Milieu o Character of individual and immediate relations o Solution lies within individual, immediate milieu and wilful activity o Personal troubles are a private matter. o I.E. Psycho, Bates the motel manager is just going through the motions of owning a motel, as no one ever goes there anymore after the new highway creates a faster route to L.A. o  Three Key Questions 1. What is the structure of society as a whole  essential components; differences from other social orders; meaning of particular features.  I.E. todays world is a great global village everyone is always connected to each other, this world is a technological place, everyone is connected electronically. 2. Where does society stand in history  Mechanics of change; development of humanity; period’s essential features; characteristic way of making history  Though we may be seen as a technology world, industry still plays a large role in our economy and in our larger lives. These mechanics of change are all centered on consumerism. 3. What varieties of men and women prevail – are coming to prevail?  the opportunities for women have grown significantly over the past 20 years.  how selected, formed, repressed, blunted, liberated; what of “human nature” is revealed ; what is its significance. Karl Marx  Scottish Enlightenment: p.73 o Enlightenment legacy – three central objectives/concerns 1. Freedom 2. Mastery 3. Progress o Reason: a shift of the power of human reason o Period where people started to question: arbitrary authority and the political structure in which they live. People want to become actively involved socially. o Hume – common, consistent nature to humanity – shaped by social circumstances o Ferguson – concern over impact of industrialization and increased division of labour – simplification of work tasks. o Adam Smith – propensity to truck, barter and exchange  Technological Determinism: p.92-93 o Machinery seen as the key material productive force – increasing technological efficiency to increase profit. o It is the productive force that permits capitalists to increase productivity and thereby increase profits. o There is a technological imperative to increase efficiency o The material means of production as the motor of history – the driving force of history o Technology determines the course of social change and development. o Seen, by Marx, as one of the major sources of change.  Economic Determinism: p.94-96 o Not machinery or technology – but economy as a whole o The economy determines the type of contradictions that will emerge and create revolutionary change. o Also referred to as “Economic Reductionism” o Long term tendency of rate of profit to fall as technology becomes more widespread o Mass of profit increased by selling more goods at smaller marginal gains o Incentive to use still technology to increase productivity further Material Forces of Production and the Mode of Production:  p.89 o The mode of production is comprised of two basic elements:  The social relations of production  Or “property relations”  Encompasses the ownership and control of the forcers of production.  The material forces of production o The material forces of production encompass the material elements that are involved in production.  In slave societies, the material elements are slaves using their labor to convert raw materials into goods for consumption. In capitalist societies, the material forces of production include the factories, the machinery, the raw material, and the physical workers, which all combine to produce commodities for sale in the market  Communist Manifesto o Presents a revolutionary dynamic that uses history to accentuate themes of freedom, mastery and progress o Two key focal points: 1. The material relations of society -objective dynamic 2. Class Struggle (class consciousness) - subjective dynamic o Change is driven by internal contradictions and struggle "The history of all hitherto existing society is the  history of class struggles" The Bourgeoisie: (b for big)  The first of the two great "titans"  Risen as a political power Asserts its historical struggle to power   From oppression under feudal nobility to armed self-governing free cities in medieval Europe, to independent republics or a taxed Third Estate. The Proletariat (p for poor) Increasing in number   Increasingly concentrated in factories  Conditions shape consciousness  Form political opposition - defeated but rise again  Forces reform through legislation  New class pushing revolutionary change  Marx and Sociology: 1. if you look at the preface it represents the first two of mills question. While the manifesto answers the rest. 2. First widely accessible presentation of Marx's central thesis: social formations and social history best understood by studying real, material, social relations 3. Marx presented the argument that one must begin, as political economists maintain, with the economic infrastructure of society 4. Focus on political economy leads to focus on class struggle (early political economy - "the three great classes") 5. Class struggle has an objective, economic dimension but also a significant subjective, politically conscious one Emilie Durkheim  Division of Labour in Society: p.142 o Focus on transition from feudal societies to a more urban industrial society  Departure point for all Durkheim's ensuing sociology o Its key aspect rests in its fundamental role as the basis for social cohesion. o Serves as an integration of the social body to assure unity; the most essential condition of social life, provided that one conceives it in all the rational extent. o Finding an empirical indicator within society  Wanted to study Division of labours in society and how it creates a social order. o One of Durkheim's key concepts is the conscience collective (conscience and consciousness) p. 145 o In a particular society what seems reasonable will govern our behaviour o More than consciousness o Not just was is reasonable but also what is just, and fair I.e. a moral order o To understand how social form emerges focus on how people view the world around them. o “it’s just done that way” o It is through this that that the individual and society ae brought together in social action. o Repressive Law - avenging a community morality; if you graffiti a wall you go to jail. o Mechanical solidarity  Particular structure is simple in a feudal society relationships are very mechanical most relationships are face to face.  Used to emphasize that the individual is bound almost directly to the society through a conscious collective that provides a single, powerful, total belief system. o Face to Face relationships; individual bound directly to society; analogy to simple organisms o Restitutive law - return to things as they were; if you graffiti a wall, you have to wash it. social solidarity o Organic solidarity  Societies with increasingly sophisticated division of labour all of the different parts need to function together  Each individual depends on society, because he depends upon the parts of which it is composed. o As it becomes more complex, the individual becomes more integrated into it. I.e. you rely on more people than you would have in a feudal society o Does not involve the suffering of the individual but simply the return of things as they were, in the reestablishment of troubled relations to their normal state.  Durkheim and Sociology o Establishing as a positivist science o Create Rules of Sociological Method o Wants to establish a unique, empirical subject matter of sociology o Believed sociology rejected individualist positions (economics, politics, philosophy) o Believed sociology was the queen of the sciences the most complex one because it is so difficult to predict the movement and actions of humans  Durkheim and the Sociological Method: p.151-152 o He charted a new, formal path for the study of the social world. o He wants to extend scientific rationalism to the study of human behaviour  “it can be shown that behaviour in the past, when analyzed, can be reduced to relationships of cause and effect.” o Distinct from biology - organism vs. conscious action and social institutions  Though both study organisms, the beings studied in sociology have a very complex conscious o Distinct from Psychology - internal vs. external  Psych is focusing on the internal mind and the individual while sociology is about the collective or group it is focusing on you vs. the society. o Social distinctive characteristics - "ways of acting, thinking, and feeling, external to the individual, and endowed with a power of coercion, by reason of which they control him." o Education imposes ways of seeing, thinking and acting on children Hidden curriculum - punctual, self-discipline,  hierarchy, social interactions o You are taken from being an individual you become more and more a social being, through a process of socialization  Socialization - group imposes ways of seeing, thinking and acting o Social facts - group habits, generalized patterns of action, traditions, mores Thanksgiving, you celebrate thanksgiving using the  traditions that are in your family but than your family is influenced by cultural traditions o They are internalized by the socialized individual and determine behaviour  Social Facts and Sociology o Subject matter of sociology is society - it is there, it confronts us o Social facts - objective element, determined and measured o External to individual o Social being is created and it is constrained o By conscience, what is right? Should we do that? o Coercive power - shape behaviour o Parents, social groups, school coerce people to think in a certain way. o Concentric circles (family, neighbourhood, school, legal structure, media etc.) *Everyone is located in these o Society sits on top of us is not a momentary neurotic derangement o These coercive forces help human conduct to become predictable o Social Facts: objective elements (age, gender, colour), exact determination, or identification, and measurement o Social Integration - gender, age, location, family, friends, media, language, commerce, education, religion, history o Subtle to overt; shunning, gossip, ridicule; economic, political; legal; force o Sui generis reality; pre dates us o Society is the walls of our imprisonment in history (peter berg)  Durkheim and Suicide oConsidered S
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