SOCY 122 Study Guide - Final Guide: Extermination Camp, Classical Liberalism, Scooter Libby

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
Queen's University
Department
Social Sci, Edu and Soc Work - Sociology
Course
SOCY 122
Professor
THINKING SOCIOLOGICALLY PART 1
Main Topics
- foundational issues to human like and human knowledge
- issues of Metatheory
- the “Orthodox Consensus” of post-War sociology
- Science, Sociology, and Discourse
Foundational Issues to consider
- what is the ultimate foundation to social life?
- What is the foundation to scientific knowledge
- What is the foundation to knowledge about social life
Metatheory
- sociology as a science
- science as an art
- the role of language in science
- elements of an integrated sociological conception of social like (micro/macro;
structure/agency; relational nature of social reality; reflexivity)
Frye
Human beings engage with the world at 3 different levels
1. contemplative (like this)
2. active (I don’t like this)
3. imaginative (this is not how I imagined this)
- the mind (intellect and emotions) is involved at each level
- intellect is basis to science
- emotions become basis to the arts
- Science and the Arts not completely divergent
- A highly developed science and a highly develop art are very close together
Science
- stems from the intellect
- emphasis on observation and classification
- grasps regularities
- progresses in accuracy and utility
- draws upon creativity of emotions and imagination
- language is a critical dimension of science
The Arts
- stem from the emotions
- limitless potential
- comparative standards of excellence
- employs aspects of reality and like experience with imagination
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Sociology, Science and The Arts
- like science, sociology is commited to analysis and comprehension of relative enduring
reality
- like science and the arts, language and creativity are critical to sociology’s comprehension
of complex social world
- the “domain” of sociology is the level of “action” (identified by Frye) where intellect and
emotions combine (the humanization of the world)
Thomas Kuhn
- rejected “development-by-accumulation” explanation for the scientific process
- science (natural and social) progresses as conceptual frameworks (paradigms or disciplinary
matrices) are refined, rethought, reimagined
Michael Foucault
- humankind creates order to its world (the intellect begins with some principles of order to
observe and classify
- an episteme is “a fundamental code of a culture” – allows us to order observations
- all areas of knowledge (the arts and sciences) produce/perceive order on the basis of the
same episteme
- The modern episteme is rooted in process, action and change (the Enlightenment)
Consensus
- Nautral sciences: dominated by paradigms
- Sociology: no single paradigm has dominated
- Late 40s-‘60s “Orthodox Consensus structural-functionalism and naturalism
- Key person is Talcott parsons
Talcott Parsons
- substantive reasons
- time and place
- a scientific approach to social phenomena
- Structure of Social Action and The Social System addressed full ragnge of human action
- Emphasis shifted to the social system
Criticism:
- Over-emphasis of order Conflict Theory challenges structural-functional emphasis;
neglected conflict, tension and power
- Over-emphasis of social integration various subject-centered (or micro) theories challenge
“over-socialization” of individual. There were critical micro elelments missing from macro
theory
- Metatheory: the systematic study of sociological theory
- Structure & ageny, micro macro
- Sociology is a science by different from the natural sciences in two key ways:
The “objects” of study differ fundamentally (do not exist independently of human
action; a product of action) every “object” or term simultaneously identifies and is
evaluative;
Due to contested nature of “objects: and terms, full theoretical agreement unlikely
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Sociological Theory as Discourse
- due to nature of “objects” studied sociological theory is a “discourse”
- discourse: focus on process of reasoning; seeks persuation through argument; persuasion
based on logical coherence, expansiveness of scope, interpretive insight, value relevance,
rhetorical force, beauty, texture of argument
- sociology as science and art
THINKING SOCIOLOGICALLY PART II
Main Topics
- Micro/macro
- Structure/agency
structuration theory
Bourdieusian theory
- Relational natural of social world
- Reflexivity
The Micro/Macro Conundrum
- Latour: Concrete/abstract; micro/macro
- Alexander & Giesen: Actors/order
- Munch & Smelser: varying meaning
- Munch & Smelser
Micro - encounters and patterened interaction among individuals (communications,
exchange, cooperation, and conflict)
Macro structures in society (groups, organizations, insitiutions, cultureal
productions) sustained (imperfectly) by mechanisms of social control and constituting
opportunities and constraints on individual behaviour and interactions
- micro/macro in discourse of an integrated conception of society
distinctive/convergent (dialectical relationship)
represent multi-dimensional relationships
conceptual diversity significant
science and art in terms and conceptual grasp
may be separated analytically to be synthetically integrated again
this is a goal like any other, but in the macro level, it is the most important goal, the
Canadian good vs. the soviet evil,
micro/macro = individuals/structures
Micro/macro and agency/structure: similar issues by different
Gidden’s Theory of Structuration
- social practices are ordered across space and time
- social action is a “continuous flow of conduct”
- social activities, like some self-reproducing items in nature, are recursive
- from the myriad of ways of acting social action is recursive practices recur, reoccur
- social actions are “not brought into being” each time
- social actions are continually produced and reproduced
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Document Summary

Main topics foundational issues to human like and human knowledge issues of metatheory the orthodox consensus of post-war sociology. What is the foundation to scientific knowledge. What is the foundation to knowledge about social life. Metatheory sociology as a science science as an art the role of language in science. Elements of an integrated sociological conception of social like (micro/macro; structure/agency; relational nature of social reality; reflexivity) Science and the arts not completely divergent. A highly developed science and a highly develop art are very close together. Draws upon creativity of emotions and imagination language is a critical dimension of science. The arts stem from the emotions limitless potential comparative standards of excellence. Employs aspects of reality and like experience with imagination. Thomas kuhn rejected development-by-accumulation explanation for the scientific process science (natural and social) progresses as conceptual frameworks (paradigms or disciplinary matrices) are refined, rethought, reimagined.

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