Socy 122 Fall Exam Review
Beloit Mindset Millennial: small, close families; helicopter parents; direct and immediate
access to information; sense of individualism; weaker sense of history; overwhelming
Michael Wesch: Disjunction between the way information is treated by schools and the
expectations of contemporary students.
Marshall McLuhan: The medium is the message – it’s not what is said but how it is said. The
medium sets the pace of information consumption, thereby compelling people to keep up and
leading to passive understandings.
Molten Hot: Web-based information that is highly packaged, tightly scripted, ready for
instantaneous and large passive consumption. Ability to control the range of information coming
in, but can only process parts of it at one time.
Molten Ice: Ice cold, because cyber media is immaterial; no material constraints and digital
information can be changed instantly, manipulated endlessly by anyone who receives it. Highly
interpretive, constructive and interactive. Recipient can create and recreate meaning; but the
boundless possibilities can leave an individual feeling helplessly unable to grasp the infinite
scope of such information.
Hot media: Film; cannot interact with the information to juxtapose or thoroughly engage
oneself; entirely passive.
Cool media: comic books and written texts, require a more active audience in the creation of
meaning; reader has the ability to control the pace of information.
Old School vs. New School: Professors realize millennials treat print as ancillary; “hard
copies” provide deeper more critical approaches to information; large blocks of undisturbed
concentrated time is vital to education; professors are realizing how easy digital media makes
Bloom: Vies for liberal education and is concerned about higher education’s failure to maintain
a liberal education; concerned about social pressures that deflect students away from engaging
with the questions central to a liberal education.
Arnold: “The pursuit of sweetness and light”; recommends culture as a solution as it is the
pursuit of total perfection of matters which most concern us.
Web of social Relations: threads of the web of social relations extend well beyond an
individual’s immediate life, they tie to each and every person on the planet into one network or
another. Everyone is inescapably tied to, and acts within, various webs of social connection.
Psycho: Relates to C.W Mills The Sociological Imagination. Both feel their private lies are a
series of traps, broad context of Phoenix yet must look into the private and personal lvel, C.W Mills 5 Objectives:
1) empower people to change the world
2) establish the classical tradition as the dominate orientation to sociology in North America
(because classical tradition critically addressed fundamental social issues and proposed
3) demonstrate the weakness of structural function position that prevailed (isolated aspecs of
social life, too narrowly focused on the very specific)
4) criticize the overreliance on quantitative survey based research
5) instill the sociological imagination in the consciousness of all North Americans
Everyday Stocks of Knowledge:
-natural attitude (Schutz), people naturally see themselves from their own personal
perspectives, as individuals
-so accustomed to viewing the world from an individual’s perspective makes it difficult to adjust
to sociological thinking.
-quality of mind that allows one to grasp social context and apprehend the world critically
-much more complex than passively relying on taken for granted ideas, requires attention to
broader social context
-think beyond person experience, moving beyond the individual and the psychological
-an understanding of one’s personal life as reflective in broader social/historical forces
-links personal issues to public matters
-intersection of personal biography, history and social structure
Mill’s 3 Key Questions:
1) What is the structure of this particular society as a whole? (identifies the social structure
2) Where does the society stand in human history? (identifies where the society stands in
terms fo history)
3) What varieties of men and women now prevail in the society? (describes the personal
biographies of the individuals currently prevailing)
Personal Troubles vs. Public Issues:
-Personal troubles occur within the character of the individual and within the range of his
immediate relations with others
-Public issues have to do with the organization of many personal milieu in the institutions of
-When many people experience the same personal trouble, it becomes a public issue of social
structure 5 Aspects to Intellectual Craftsmanship:
1) The integration of life and work allows the scholar to use individual life experience to
reflect critically upon intellectual work. Mental dexterity is a skill to develop.
2) An active ongoing commitment to learning.
3) Applying critical reasoning to an empirically informed analysis
4) Dissemination of one’s research and a commitment to public scrutiny
5) Keeping files and a journal to develop one’s reflective habits
- suggests history would follow certain “objective laws”, class struggles are crucial to revolution.
The economic infrastructure shapes the social superstructure.
Dialectical materialist: his method of studying society and sociology. Drew from Hegel’s dialectic
(negation and transcendence), then drew on the insights of political economy, emphasizing the
central importance of labour and production, which turned it into a materialist perspective.
Sources: French political thought, German philosophy (German idealism), and British political
Superstructure: Legal and political superstructure; determinate forms of consciousness.
Base: Economic structure of society; totality of the relations of production. The Mode of
production; the social relations of production and the material forces of production. How we met
basic needs of food and shelter.
Three readings of the 1859 preface:
1) Technological determinism: The social relations of production in capitalist society
facilitate, encourage and require production for profit, the key focus is the role of
machinery. “At a certain stage of their development, the material productive forces of
society come into contradiction with the existing relations of production.” The material
productive force that permits capitalists to increase productivity, thereby increasing
2) Economic Determinism: Not machinery or technology that drives history and social
change, but the economy as a whole. Theory of overproduction, the replacement of
works by more efficient machines, reserve army of the unemployed, dampening effect on
workers’ wages from competition, leads to a crises of overproduction. Technological advantages and new markets are not solutions; always leads back to the same outcome.
“At a certain stage of their development, the material productive forces of society come
into contradiction with the existing relations of production.”
3) Labour power, consciousness and political action: Material forces of production break
down into the means or production (raw material and machinery), the spaces where
production takes place (factories) and the human labour power required. Labour power
is irrevocably tied to a human being, therefore the anatomy of civil society is to be
sought in political economy. Recognizing labour power ties to Mill’s notion of the
intersection of personal biography and history of social structure.
Proletariat: Working class, labour
Bourgeoisie: Owning class, capital
Reserve army of labour: unemployed willing to work for less.
Mode of production: The second entity, besides economic infrastructure, that makes up the
Mode of Production
The way in which people meet their
Social Relations of Production Material Forces of Production
Relations between people with
Productive forces and material
respect to ownership and access to forces
the productive forces; legal property
Means of Production Labour Power
Machines, tools, raw Mental and physical ability,
materials, scientific expertise, worker’s commodity
spaces of production
Class Consciousness: Consciousness of one’s social class in society; a class in itself becomes
a class for itself. “Workers of the world unite!” False consciousness: Workers who do not see their class interest and believe the ideology that
division between bosses and workers is right, natural, or inevitable.
Exploitation: pay subsistence wages to labour that is not equal to the value of the product. The
difference between the actual value and what is paid to the worker is surplus value; the profit
which is kept by the owners.
Alienation: Occurs when humans are separated from direct enjoyment of and ownership over
their labour and the products of that labour. Separate from their species being – what makes us
human is our ability to labour work done to make profit for an employer is always alienated
Opiate of the masses: religious ideologies that tell workers that they will receive their reward in
Bourgeoisie transformed feudal society into a market based society and constantly
revolutionized modes of production, thereby relations of production. They have no nexus
between people other than self-interest and cash payment. “All that is solid melts into air, all that
is holy is profaned…”
Enlightenment summed up in three words: Freedom, mastery and progress.
Francis bacon; knowledge should rise from observation
Isaac Newton; assumes an order to the world, which can be rduced to a set of mathematical
-eliminate knowledge based on prejudice, tradition or religious precepts, start at a fundamental
-discourse on method
-radical doubt; accept nothing, divide questions into simplest parts, begin with smallest part and
link back to greatest, review thoroughly.
-“to doubt is to think, therefore he exists”
-rationalist, not experimentalist
-wanted to eliminate privilege
-importance of observation in determining good government
-broke things into constituent parts and put back together
-holism; whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Saint-Simon -explores science, applies scientific method to social organization in 1814
-focuses on the industrializing of society
-producers (feudal serfs), ruling elite (nobility) and spiritual elite (church)
-focused on industrialization and economy as key element in social analysis
-aimed to enshrine positivism as supreme method for all knowledge, including sociology
-1) theological phase (feudalism), 2) metaphysical (enlightenment) 3) positive (scientific
Holism: properties of a system cannot be determined by component parts alone, the system as
a whole determines how parts behave
Division of labour: example of empirical indicator, people can become more tied to each other
as the division of labour becomes more comple, we need each other to survive.
- individual is bound almost directly to the society through the conscience collective, which
provides a single, powerful, total belief system.
-Includes repressive law; dominates anyone who breaks away from ideals and is a highly
intense response from individuals.
-Each individual depends on society because he depends upon the parts of which it is
-presumes people are different.
-A system of different, special functions which definite