Study Guides (238,073)
Canada (114,907)
Sociology (258)
SOCY 122 (88)

Socy 122 Exam Review.docx

13 Pages
Unlock Document

Queen's University
SOCY 122
Rob Beamish

Socy 122 Fall Exam Review Beloit Mindset Millennial: small, close families; helicopter parents; direct and immediate access to information; sense of individualism; weaker sense of history; overwhelming schedules. Michael Wesch: Disjunction between the way information is treated by schools and the expectations of contemporary students. Marshall McLuhan: The medium is the message – it’s not what is said but how it is said. The medium sets the pace of information consumption, thereby compelling people to keep up and leading to passive understandings. Molten Hot: Web-based information that is highly packaged, tightly scripted, ready for instantaneous and large passive consumption. Ability to control the range of information coming in, but can only process parts of it at one time. Molten Ice: Ice cold, because cyber media is immaterial; no material constraints and digital information can be changed instantly, manipulated endlessly by anyone who receives it. Highly interpretive, constructive and interactive. Recipient can create and recreate meaning; but the boundless possibilities can leave an individual feeling helplessly unable to grasp the infinite scope of such information. Hot media: Film; cannot interact with the information to juxtapose or thoroughly engage oneself; entirely passive. Cool media: comic books and written texts, require a more active audience in the creation of meaning; reader has the ability to control the pace of information. Old School vs. New School: Professors realize millennials treat print as ancillary; “hard copies” provide deeper more critical approaches to information; large blocks of undisturbed concentrated time is vital to education; professors are realizing how easy digital media makes life. Bloom: Vies for liberal education and is concerned about higher education’s failure to maintain a liberal education; concerned about social pressures that deflect students away from engaging with the questions central to a liberal education. Arnold: “The pursuit of sweetness and light”; recommends culture as a solution as it is the pursuit of total perfection of matters which most concern us. Web of social Relations: threads of the web of social relations extend well beyond an individual’s immediate life, they tie to each and every person on the planet into one network or another. Everyone is inescapably tied to, and acts within, various webs of social connection. Psycho: Relates to C.W Mills The Sociological Imagination. Both feel their private lies are a series of traps, broad context of Phoenix yet must look into the private and personal lvel, C.W Mills 5 Objectives: 1) empower people to change the world 2) establish the classical tradition as the dominate orientation to sociology in North America (because classical tradition critically addressed fundamental social issues and proposed sweeping changes) 3) demonstrate the weakness of structural function position that prevailed (isolated aspecs of social life, too narrowly focused on the very specific) 4) criticize the overreliance on quantitative survey based research 5) instill the sociological imagination in the consciousness of all North Americans Everyday Stocks of Knowledge: -natural attitude (Schutz), people naturally see themselves from their own personal perspectives, as individuals -so accustomed to viewing the world from an individual’s perspective makes it difficult to adjust to sociological thinking. Sociological Imagination: -quality of mind that allows one to grasp social context and apprehend the world critically -much more complex than passively relying on taken for granted ideas, requires attention to broader social context -think beyond person experience, moving beyond the individual and the psychological -an understanding of one’s personal life as reflective in broader social/historical forces -links personal issues to public matters -intersection of personal biography, history and social structure Mill’s 3 Key Questions: 1) What is the structure of this particular society as a whole? (identifies the social structure currently prevailing) 2) Where does the society stand in human history? (identifies where the society stands in terms fo history) 3) What varieties of men and women now prevail in the society? (describes the personal biographies of the individuals currently prevailing) Personal Troubles vs. Public Issues: -Personal troubles occur within the character of the individual and within the range of his immediate relations with others -Public issues have to do with the organization of many personal milieu in the institutions of historical society -When many people experience the same personal trouble, it becomes a public issue of social structure 5 Aspects to Intellectual Craftsmanship: 1) The integration of life and work allows the scholar to use individual life experience to reflect critically upon intellectual work. Mental dexterity is a skill to develop. 2) An active ongoing commitment to learning. 3) Applying critical reasoning to an empirically informed analysis 4) Dissemination of one’s research and a commitment to public scrutiny 5) Keeping files and a journal to develop one’s reflective habits Marx 1859 Preface: - suggests history would follow certain “objective laws”, class struggles are crucial to revolution. The economic infrastructure shapes the social superstructure. Dialectical materialist: his method of studying society and sociology. Drew from Hegel’s dialectic (negation and transcendence), then drew on the insights of political economy, emphasizing the central importance of labour and production, which turned it into a materialist perspective. Sources: French political thought, German philosophy (German idealism), and British political economy. Superstructure: Legal and political superstructure; determinate forms of consciousness. Base: Economic structure of society; totality of the relations of production. The Mode of production; the social relations of production and the material forces of production. How we met basic needs of food and shelter. Three readings of the 1859 preface: 1) Technological determinism: The social relations of production in capitalist society facilitate, encourage and require production for profit, the key focus is the role of machinery. “At a certain stage of their development, the material productive forces of society come into contradiction with the existing relations of production.” The material productive force that permits capitalists to increase productivity, thereby increasing profits. 2) Economic Determinism: Not machinery or technology that drives history and social change, but the economy as a whole. Theory of overproduction, the replacement of works by more efficient machines, reserve army of the unemployed, dampening effect on workers’ wages from competition, leads to a crises of overproduction. Technological advantages and new markets are not solutions; always leads back to the same outcome. “At a certain stage of their development, the material productive forces of society come into contradiction with the existing relations of production.” 3) Labour power, consciousness and political action: Material forces of production break down into the means or production (raw material and machinery), the spaces where production takes place (factories) and the human labour power required. Labour power is irrevocably tied to a human being, therefore the anatomy of civil society is to be sought in political economy. Recognizing labour power ties to Mill’s notion of the intersection of personal biography and history of social structure. Proletariat: Working class, labour Bourgeoisie: Owning class, capital Reserve army of labour: unemployed willing to work for less. Mode of production: The second entity, besides economic infrastructure, that makes up the base. Mode of Production The way in which people meet their basic needs Social Relations of Production Material Forces of Production Relations between people with Productive forces and material respect to ownership and access to forces the productive forces; legal property relations Means of Production Labour Power Machines, tools, raw Mental and physical ability, materials, scientific expertise, worker’s commodity spaces of production (factories) Class Consciousness: Consciousness of one’s social class in society; a class in itself becomes a class for itself. “Workers of the world unite!” False consciousness: Workers who do not see their class interest and believe the ideology that division between bosses and workers is right, natural, or inevitable. Exploitation: pay subsistence wages to labour that is not equal to the value of the product. The difference between the actual value and what is paid to the worker is surplus value; the profit which is kept by the owners. Alienation: Occurs when humans are separated from direct enjoyment of and ownership over their labour and the products of that labour. Separate from their species being – what makes us human is our ability to labour work done to make profit for an employer is always alienated work. Opiate of the masses: religious ideologies that tell workers that they will receive their reward in heaven. Bourgeoisie transformed feudal society into a market based society and constantly revolutionized modes of production, thereby relations of production. They have no nexus between people other than self-interest and cash payment. “All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is profaned…” Fuedal  Capitalism Enlightenment summed up in three words: Freedom, mastery and progress. Francis bacon; knowledge should rise from observation Isaac Newton; assumes an order to the world, which can be rduced to a set of mathematical principles. Descartes -eliminate knowledge based on prejudice, tradition or religious precepts, start at a fundamental basis -discourse on method -radical doubt; accept nothing, divide questions into simplest parts, begin with smallest part and link back to greatest, review thoroughly. -“to doubt is to think, therefore he exists” -rationalist, not experimentalist Montesquieu -wanted to eliminate privilege -importance of observation in determining good government -broke things into constituent parts and put back together -holism; whole is greater than the sum of its parts Saint-Simon -explores science, applies scientific method to social organization in 1814 -focuses on the industrializing of society -producers (feudal serfs), ruling elite (nobility) and spiritual elite (church) -focused on industrialization and economy as key element in social analysis Auguste Comte -named sociology -aimed to enshrine positivism as supreme method for all knowledge, including sociology -1) theological phase (feudalism), 2) metaphysical (enlightenment) 3) positive (scientific revolution) Emile Durkehim Holism: properties of a system cannot be determined by component parts alone, the system as a whole determines how parts behave Division of labour: example of empirical indicator, people can become more tied to each other as the division of labour becomes more comple, we need each other to survive. Mechanical solidarity: - individual is bound almost directly to the society through the conscience collective, which provides a single, powerful, total belief system. -Includes repressive law; dominates anyone who breaks away from ideals and is a highly intense response from individuals. Organic solidarity: -Each individual depends on society because he depends upon the parts of which it is composed -presumes people are different. -A system of different, special functions which definite
More Less

Related notes for SOCY 122

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.