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SOCY 122
Rob Beamish

Roman Citizenship - “Roman by birth”  born in Rome - Citizenship process  pay to become a citizen - Given to some of the people who lived in Italy - Slaves who had obtained freedom could also become citizens Geography of Italy - Settlements chosen to be well protected from enemies - Also had important resources for life o Rivers  transportation, agriculture o Lands  agriculture o Close to the coast - Mountains - Surrounded by Tyrrhenian Sea, Ionian Sea and Adriatic Sea Language - Romans  Latin - Other people in Italy spoke different languages - Etruscans  easy to read, not spoken since 1 c. AD st o Literature was no longer copied or spoken o Interest in language was lost Early Rome - Surrounded by hills  very easy to defend - Tiber River ran through Early Rome o Tiber Island - Built bridges (Pons Sublicious) to easily cross the river - Ostia  Rome’s first harbour - Salt was and important commodity o Used for preservation of food o Salary  originates from SALT o Used as money  people paid in salt - Most early knowledge comes from archaeology; no written text - Only one necropolis that served a bigger group of people o Different groups were together at a certain point to form a collective group o Lived in huts made out of straw  archaeologists found postholes Mythological Foundation of Rome - Romulus and Remus and the Capitoline Wolf (she-wolf who suckled them) - Amulius  King of Alba Longa - Numitor  brother of Amulius - Rhea Silvia  daughter of Numitor and Vestal Virgin; priestess - Amulius took over the throne because he wanted the power; exiled his brother - Brother had Rhea - Rhea was a vestal virgin and vowed not to get married or have children - Offspring of Rhea could create problems for Amulius; might try to take his throne - Mars (God of War) and Rhea had twins, Romulus and Remus - Amulius ordered that the twins should be thrown into the Tiber River - Gave them to a servant who put them by the edge of the river (which was flooding) - Flood was over and the water retired, a she-wolf found the twins and took care of them  SHE SUCKLED THEM - The twins were later found by shepherds at a fig tree (Ficus Ruminalis) o Near a cave below the Palatine Hill - Faustulus (shepherd) and his wife, Acca Karentia, raised the twins - When the twins were adults, they wanted to found the city exactly in the place where they were found - Built a new city on the Palatine Hill - A rivalry soon rose between the brothers o What to name the city  Roma or Remora? - Looked at the flight of the birds (divination) to decide the name of the city o Birds showed that augury had given the land to Romulus  Roma o Romulus was on Aventine Hill  birds flew to him o Remus was on Little Aventine Hill - Romulus cuts the furrow in the ground with the plough - Birth of Rome: April 21, 753 BCE o Still a national holiday today - After Romulus built the walls to protect the city, Remus leaped over the wall and was killed by Romulus o Considered an aggressive act because if Remus wanted to enter the city, he would enter through the gates - People who couldn’t live in other places were taken in to Rome and given protection - Problem: a city with just men could not survive; NEED WOMEN - Solution: rape the Sabine women!!! Rape em all - BEGINNING OF ROME - First village built on the Palatine Hill The Greek Background - Greek heroes later worshipped in Rome - Hercules: Herakles o Worshipped at the Great Alter (Ara Maxima) in Rome o The cult was founded by Evander and the Arcadians after Hercules killed the bandit Cacus, who robbed the hero of the cattle of Geryon - Aeneas o Greek hero link between Romulus and Remus o Trojan hero who fought in Trojan War o Romans didn’t make such a distinction between Greeks and Trojans (thought of him as a Greek hero) o Aeneas escaped the Sack of Troy carrying his father, Anchises, on his shoulders  Considered pious because he saved his old father o Wandered after the fall of Troy to reach a place to found a new city o Reached Latium o (Look on slide for sources for the Aeneas’ saga) o Virgil’s Aeneid  “brings his gods to the to Latium”  “from him are descended the Latin people, the elders of Alba, and the walls of lofty Rome” o Aeneas fights with the indigenous inhabitants (Aborigines), after his betrothal to Lavinia, a local princess, daughter of the King Latinus, previously betrothed to a local prince o Aeneas marries Lavinia o Aeneas founds the city Lavinium o Centuries before the foundation of Rome o Aeneas dies and becomes a god o Leaves Ascanius, now called Julus, as his successor o Ascanius founds Alba Longa o 4 c. BCE: a cult was built in honor of Aeneas at Lavinium o Aeneas about to sacrifice a sow when it runs away; runs after it and discovers the white sow and its 30 piglets o Decided to found the city where he had found the piglets o Had a dream and was told to wait 30 years before he founded the city; Ascanius founds the city for him after he dies o Alba  white (in reference to the white sow) o Alba Longa connects to the twins (Romulus and Remus) who were born centuries later Gens Julia - In Rome, there were members of important gens (clans) - Claimed to descend from Aeneas - The most famous member of the gens are: o Caius Julius Caesar o Caius Octavius  Later C. Julius Caesar Octavianus after adoption by Caesar, and then Augustus, the first emperor of Rome Early Latium - Combination of the different people living in relation o Sabine women o Etruscans  an area in Rome where they settled o Other Latin peoples The Seven Kings - 753-510/509 BCE - Monarchy government 1. Romulus 2. Numa Pompilius  Sabine 3. Tullus Histilius 4. Ancus Marcius 5. Tarquinius Priscus  Etruscan 6. Servius Tullius  Etruscan 7. Tarquinius Superbus (The Arrogant)  Etruscan - The kings were people who were able to have power and to lead communities - Were leaders of clans at first Roman Names - Gens (pl. gentes): clan - Marcus Tullius o Praenomen (personal name)  Marcus o Nomen (name) of the gens  Tullius - Gens Tullia o Tullii: members of the gens Tullia - Lapis Satricanus (c. 500 BCE) o “the Sodales of Publius Valerius dedicated to Mars” o Praenomen (personal name)  Publius o Nomen (name) of the gens  Valerius - Roman tria nomina (three names) o Praenomen/ Nomen / Cognomen o Ex. Caius Julius Caesar  Born via caesarean section (from the word CUT) o Ex. Lucius Cornelius Scipio Africanus  Success in Africa - Women had only one name: the feminine form of the nomen o Ex. Marcus Tullius Cicero (father)  Tullia (daughter) - If families had more than one daughter, they were distinguished by the words maior and minor (“elder” and “younger”) or prime, secunda, tertia, etc. (first, second, third, etc.) Imperium: power - Later took on the meaning of EMPIRE - Fasti Triumphales (Register of Triumphs) from the Augustus’ Parthian Arch - Augustus wanted to started wanted to start with Brief History of Rome (?) - Lucretia, wife of Tarquinius Collatinus - Sextus Tarquinius, son of Tarquinius Superbus - Fell in love with her and raped her (she was already married!) - She felt ashamed and wanted to commit suicide - Asked her father and another man, Lucius Junius Brutus, for revenge and then killed herself - They fought against the Tarquinius and left Rome to go to Gabii - They killed him in Gabii - Ended the monarchy in Rome because they wanted to have a government where one person didn’t hold absolute power - Happened in Rome in the same period in which the Tyranny ended in Athens - At this period of time, there were many groups of people (gens) emerging in Rome The Republic - 509-27 BCE - 2 Consuls: o Elected by an assembly of Roman people  to avoid one person from having great power o One year office o Collegiality o Accountability - Dictator o Created about 501 BCE o Six months office o Had absolute power o Was in charge during periods when the safety of Rome was under high risk - Decemuiri: board of 10 men o Created in the middle of the 5 c. BCE o Twelve Tables  code of law in Rome  All the laws from previous periods were all collected together and was given a written form  Each table was about a specific area (ex. table about the crimes of homicide, table which referred to the laws about burials) - Military Tribune with the Power of a Consul o 444-366 BCE o Had the same power as consuls - Senate (senes: old men) o Advisory board  important to follow the advice given by them - Comitium: place of assembly, where they met - Comitia: assembly o The only ones who could participate were Roman citizens - Plebeians: members of plebs Patricians - Patricii: patricians o Pater (plu. patres): father - Only by birth - Origins: o During the monarchy o According to the tradition, a creation of Romulus - Monopolization of all important priesthoods Plebeians - Tribuni plebis: tribunes of plebs o Persons considered untouchables - Maybe the name related to the Greek word for masses - During the early Republic excluded from religious colleges, magistracies and senate - Its major tactic in crises was secession en masse from Rome Nexum: debt-bondage - Economy for farmers was often difficult for them - When they didn’t have money to pay back their debts, they became completely under control of their debtors - 326 BCE  Lex Poetelia (Law of Poetelius) o Brought the system of nexum to an end The Roman Conquest of Italy - 509-264 BCE - When Rome started to conquer Italy, there was more territory to use - Territory started to have colonies organized in certain ways - Ager Romanus (Ager: land) - Ager Publicus: public land - Colonia: colony o Subjects of Rome and had to obey them o Bound by an alliance (ex. when Rome needed soldiers or anything else, they had to serve the city) o Status of “Latins”  had the right to trade and marry Romans o Intermarriage was not usually allowed (ex. no marriage between patrician and plebeian) - Ciuitas sine suffragio: citizenship without the right to vote - Municipium (plu. municipia): free city Development of the City - When territory was given (ex. to soldiers after their military career) the land was divided - First important road in Rome was the Via Appia o Built by Appius Claudius Caecus in 312 BCE o Connected Rome to Capua o Later extended to the Hill of the Italian Peninsula - Acqua Appia was Rome’s first aqueduct - King Pyrrhus of Epirus o Sparta felt threatened and asked King Pyrrhus for help o Came and defeated the Romans at first and moved to Sicily o At the end, the Romans defeated him and he went back like a little bitch The Punic Wars - Biggest enemies of Romans were the Carthaginians - Romans fought them to extend their power, also in the area of Sicily - The Punic Wars: o The First Punic War  264-241 BCE o The Second Punic War  218-201 BCE o The Third Punic War  149-146 BCE - First Punic War o Result: control of Sicily - Second Punic War o Fought against the Carthaginians o “Punic” comes from their Phoenician ancestry o Hannibal the Carthaginian crossed the Alps with war elephants and fought against the Romans o They were able to defeat the Romans in some battled at the beginning o 218 BCE  Invasion of Italy o 216 BCE  Battle of Cannae  shameful defeat for Romans o 202 BCE  Battle of Zama  Marked the end of the Second Punic War  Led by Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus  Defeated Hannibal - After the Punic Wars, there was more control in this part of the Mediterranean Conquering Greece - They wanted to conquer the East  Greece - 196 BCE  Titus Quinctius Flamininus declared Greece to be free - 146 BCE  Final conquer of Greece and destruction of Corinth (led by Lucius Mummius) - Rome took Greek art to decorate Rome o Horace, Epiststs: “Captured Greece… and brought the arts in rural Latium” - Common in the 1 c. BCE for aristocratic/important Romans to send their sons to study rhetoric in Athens Roman Citizenship - Latin citizenship - Allies wanted the same full rights that Roman citizens had o Granted with benefits (ex. trade, intermarriage) o Let them become officials (ex. go to assembly, vote, become Consul) - Socii (sing. Socius): allies - “New Men”  not born in Rome; came from places where Roman citizenship was awarded - 91 BCE  M. Livius Drusus proposal to give Roman citizenship to the Italians failed - 91-87 BCE  Social War to grant citizenship  Romanization Lucius Cornelius Sulla - Distinguished himself during the Social War - First equestrian monument dedicated to the man while he was alive - When on campaign in Greece, was proclaimed a public enemy of the state because Marius wanted to have more power in his hands o The republic didn’t want to give power just to one man o The idea that people could gain more power by becoming leaders and to later become “absolute commanders” in the city - Made the decision to come back and march on Rome - Was with his loyal veterans o Territory was allotted to them - Some members of aristocracy joined him because they wanted to escalate their power - Was able to be proclaimed Dictator  all the power was in his hands - Started a lot of reforms - People who joined his movement wanted to gain more power  PERSONAL AMBITIONS Pompey (G. Pompeius Magnus [the Great]) - “not so much as a magistrate dispatched from Rome as someone who has fallen from Heaven” - Triumph of 81/80 BCE for victories in North Africa - Triumph of 71 BCE for victories in Spain - Triumph of 61 BCE for the victory over the pirates (67 BCE), Mithradates (62 BCE) - Thought of himself as someone who could have absolute power - Holds a globe in a statue  indicating Rome’s conquests - Important to have important allies to become powerful The First Triumvirate - Triumvirate: three men - 59-53 BCE - Pompey - C. Julius Caesar - Marcus Licinius Crassus o Known for his dealings with money? - Alliance which didn’t have any legal power - Most ambitious were Pompey and Caesar - Caesar was middle aged (late 50s) and away from Rome campaigning when Pompey started to have more power and friends in Rome (especially in the senate) - Caesar and Pompey had a rivalry, neither wanted each other to win - Pompey divorced and married the daughter of an enemy of Caesar - 49 BCE  Caesar leads his army across the Rubicon o Started the Civil War after the one that was in Italy and Rome at the time of Sulla o Was more powerful than Pompey, so Pompey left to Greece to organize his forces o Caesar followed him - 48 BCE  Battle of Pharsalus o Caesar defeated Pompey and escaped to Egypt o Was murdered there by King Ptolemy, who ruled Egypt with his sister, Cleopatra C. Julius Caesar - Had a son with Cleopatra, Caesarion o Previously had a childless marriage - Goes back to Rome very powerful and receives important offices - 44 BCE  declared himself dictator for life - Had many allies, but also many enemies who didn’t like the idea of so much power in the hands of one person - March 15, 44 BCE  assassinated o Was plotted against because people did not like the idea of one person having so much power o Killed in the place where the Senate met, just beside the statue representing his enemy, Pompey - Commentaries: o Gallic War  7 books o Civil War  3 books - His adoptive son, Julius Caesar Octavianus, fought and killed all the people who plotted and killed Caesar (was 18) - He made the Second Triumvirate The Second Triumvirate - 43 BCE - Mark Antony (M. Antonius) - M. Aemilius Lepidus - Octavianus - Aemilius became the chief priest of Rome - Octavianus had to fight Mark Antony (older) - Mark Antony was more linked to east provinces and Egypt and Alexander; lived with Cleopatra - Octavianus released a will of Mark Antony  to be buried in Egypt and to make Alexandria capital of the empire - 31 BCE  Battle of Actium o Mark Antony was convinced by Cleopatra to put his fleet in this area of Greece and was defeated o Octavianus went to Egypt and Cleopatra killed herself so she wouldn’t be a subject of Rome o Egypt became a province of Rome, but had a special status because it was considered a personal possession of the Emperor o No senators were allowed to go there without passport and permission - Octavianus now controls Rome; returns and gives power to the senate o The Romans and the senate don’t see him as a dictator (like Caesar) Augustus - 27 BCE  Julius Caesar Octavianus becomes Augustus (revered)  the First Roman Emperor - Succession was not the oldest son, the designated became co-ruler but needed ratification from the senate - Started reforms and buildings in Rome o “Found it of brick, but left it of marble” - Took title of Caesar  title all emperors had in Rome - Started Ara Pacis Augustae (Alter of the Augustan Peace)  alter for the goddess Peace - Dies in 14 AD, age 27 Other Important Emperors - Tiberius  14-37 AD o Emperor when Jesus died - Nero o 64 AD  The Great Fire of Rome o Built a house on top of the ruins and people got mad o Commit suicide - Vespasian o Found the Flavian dynasty o Put public washrooms in Rome o Constructed the Flavian Amphitheatre  Colosseum - Trajan o Expanded Rome to its biggest ever - The Severans Dynasty o Iulia Domna, Septimius Severus, Caracalla and Geta  Smeared image because of damnatio memoria (condemnation of memory) o Caracalla (211-217)  212 AD  Roman citizenship is granted to all free inhabitants of the empire Christianity/Fall of Rome - 313 AD  Edict of Milan o The Christian faith is no more a criminal offence - Constantine the Great  first Christian emperor - Constantine founded Constantinople o Importance of Rome as the empire’s capital becomes less important th th - During 4 /5 century, emperors never went to Rome because they lived in other regions - 395 AD  empire split in two halves at the death of Theodosius I o Eastern empire with Constantinople o Western empire with western Europe/Italy/North Africa - Most important city was Ravenna, north of Rome - No more public monuments in Rome because the city is less wealthy - 476 AD  the fall of the Roman Western Empire o Invasions of barbaric people o Last emperor: Romulus Augustus Romanization - Not homogeneity - Aspects of Roman culture promoted - Cultural exchange with new people o Ex. Greek art - Latin language - Architecture/Urbanization o Urban plans - Romans influenced others but were also influenced by others Regina - Wife of Barates of Palmyra - Freedwoman from a tribe in Catuvellauni, Britannia - Her husband was from the East - Her tombstone had Latin and Palmyrene inscriptions (use of both languages) - Represented as the “good Roman wife” Polybius - Greek, deported to Rome where he spent a lot of time nd - Wrote an important work of history detailing the events of the 2 c. BCE o Especially from the perspective of a Greek - 3 types of government: monarchy, oligarchy, tyranny - Figures with a lot of power and the importance of assembly Roman Military Generals/Commanders - Imperium: power o From imperare: to order - Res publica: activity of the Roman people - Magistrate with imperium had power to give order - The res publica made the existence of government possible - Auspicium: act of consulting the gods/divination - Triumphus: triumph  Prize awarded to a successful Roman general o Important for generals who were awarded o Not all Roman generals were awarded o Depended on their victories in war (type of war, importance of enemies) - Main god of the city was Jupiter (Roman equivalent of Zeus) o Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill o Started during the monarchy and was inaugurated at the beginning of the Republican period o A general performed rights before he left on a campaign o Vowed to go to the temple to give his thanks to Jupiter if he came back successful - Paludamentum: cloak/cape worn by military generals/commanders/emperors - Pomerium: sacred boundary o Original wall/line ploughed by Romulus o General couldn’t enter with his army, was a sacred place - Imperium militiae: power on military service - Imperium domi: power at home - Imperator: general, emperor - Temple of Bellona out of pomerium o The commander meets the Senate and asks for triumph - Ouatio: ovation/lesser triumph o Senate decided what to award a general based on his victories o If the victory was meh, they granted an ouatio - If the Senate decided that a general didn’t deserve anything, a general could pay for one himself but had to be careful to avoid curses - A general award triumphus: o A chariot with 4 horses o Wore a crown of gold and precious stones and a purple toga woven with golden stars o Carried a scepter of ivory and a laurel branch o Was very rich - Final destination of the triumphal procession was the Temple of Jupiter o The triumphator painted their face to resemble Jupiter o Wore a tunica palmata (embroidered with palm leaves) and a toga picta Roman Art Depicting Triumphs - Etruscan art o Showed women in white skin o Showed men in red/brown skin - Relief on the Arch of Titus (c. 81 AD) o The spoils of Judea (71 AD) o Triumph of Titus (71 AD) - Triumphus of Marcus Aurelius, after his success against the Germanic tribes (168- 175 AD) - Parthian Arch of Augustus o Erected on 19 BCE o Fasti Triumphales (Register of Triumphs) o 3 passageways - Temple of Mars Ultor (The Avenger) dedicated on 2 BCE in the Forum of Augustus o Augustus declared that the senate should make decisions there o Starting point of commanders o Where they received their awards after victories Magistracies - Magistracies with imperium (could give orders): o Consuls o Praetors o Dictators - Magistracies without imperium (could not give orders): o Quaestors o Tribunes of the plebs o Aediles o Censors Consuls - Only patricians up to 367 BCE - From 367 BCE  one of the two should be plebeian - 172 BCE  for the first time, two plebeian consuls - Elected by the comitia centuriata (centuriate assembly) - 180 BCE  Lex Vibia Annalis; minimum age to be consul 42 - Consuls did not take the religious duties that the king had - Gave their name to the year - Duties: o Main function was the command of the army o Consulted and presided over the Senate o Presented bills (rogationes) to the assemblies of the people - Wore the toga praetexta: toga with a purple border - Seated on the sella curulis: seat with U and n shaped legs, usually made of bronze or ivory - Preceded by 12 lictors carrying the fasces: bundles of rods tied together and attached to an axe o Represented that consuls had power and could be dangerous Praetors - Created in 366 BCE - Authority on legal cases - Office originally confined to patricians - 242 BCE  created the praetor peregrinus o Peregrinus: foreign o Legal cases for foreign people o The original one was called praetor urbanus  Urbs: walled town of city, esp. Rome - Held imperium - Used the sella curulis - Were accompanied by 6 lictors - Had the right to consult gods through auspicia - Chosen by the comitia centuriata - From 200 BCE  they became eligible to celebrate triumph - Worked with consuls, but didn’t have as much power as them Dictators - Dictator rei gerundae causa: for the purpose of carrying on the business of the state - Generally nominated by one of the consuls o After 367 BCE  by a praetor - Accompanied by 24 lictors with fasces, always provided of axe - Office limited to 6 months - Only had absolute power when there was a crisis (ex. war, military problem) - Had more power than consuls - Appointed by the consul as one whose dictum (command) would listen to - Sometimes also called magister populi: master of the people - The dictator appointed his subordinate a magister equitum: master of the cavalry o Had supreme power over the equites (cavalrymen) - Appointed by the consul as one whose dictum (command) would listen to - Dictatorship was dropped at the end of the Second Punic War - There are only two cases known after that date: o 82 BCE  Sulla, undefined period o 44 BCE  Caesar, for life Quaestors - Quaestor: the man who asks questions; investigator - Assistants of the consuls - They took charge of the state treasury (aerarium) - Originated during the period of the kings - Aerarium o The Temple of Saturn housed the aerarium of ancient Rome in the Roman Forum, Rome o Place where politics and economic affairs were carried out Saturnus - Not just worshipped by Romans - God of agriculture - Saturnalia  17 December o Celebrated at the beginning to the end of the Republican period o Festival lasted one day o Festival for family dinners and for a day where roles were switched  Owners waited on their slaves; Slaves could address their owners  Also known for Greeks and later periods - Important in central Italy, especially for the Etruscans Quaestors (cont.) - Quaestores urbani: served in the city - One quaestor accompanied each holder of imperium to his overseas provincia - From the time of Sulla, there were 20 quaestores Tribunes of the Plebs - Created in 494 BCE after the secession to the Sacred Mount or to Aventine Hill - No patricians: see Publius Clodius Pulcher o Created to protect members of the plebs o Patricians could not hold office o Publius Clodius Pulcher had to be adopted by a plebian to hold this office because he was born a patrician - Sacrosanctitas o No one could attack them and if they were attacked, the attacker could be charged and punished without trial - No attendants - Presided the concilium plebis (assembly of the plebs) and presented bills to it - Assist on any plebian seized by a magistrate - Veto on any action of magistrate or any senatorial proposal put before the other two assemblies (comitia centuriata, comitia tributa) - 287 BCE  Lex Hortensia (Hortensian Law) o Plebiscita: decrees of the concilium plebis o Have the force of a statute passed by whole people - Threatening a tribune was a serious offence o 63 BCE  Marcus Tullius Cicero threatens a tribune o Titus Labienus moved a charge against an old man who was a consul 30 years before o When he was consul, he caused the death of a tribune o Cicero took the defense of Labienus Aediles - Elected by the concilium pleblis - Varro (116-27 BCE), a book about the Latin language o “The aedile was the one who should look after sacred and private aedes (buildings).” - Originally, their main function was to supervise the common temple (aedes) and cults of the plebs: o Ceres and Diana - 366 BCE  the curule aediles were created o Originally only patricians o Elected by the comitia tributa o Wore the toga praetexta o Sat on the sella curulis - Both had responsibility on: o Fabric of the city o Upkeep and cleaning of roads and paths o Distribution of water from acqueducts o Conduit/access/behavior in public places o Control of prices o Judicial functions o Power to impose fines o Responsible for putting on games (ludi)  Contests and games held during religious festivals  Held in honour of specific deities - Plebeian Aediles  Ludi plebei - Curule Aediles  Ludi romani Ludi Romani - Dedicated to Juno, Jupiter, and Minerva o 3 gods worshipped altogether - September 5-19 Important Roman Gods - Hercules  Herakles - Minerva  Hera - Apollo  Apollo - Jupiter  Zeus - Venus  Aphrodite - Juno - Mercury Ludi Plebei - Instituted in commemoration of the reconciliation between plebeians and patricians (secession to the Sacred Mount or to Aventine in 494 BCE) - November 16-18 - A lot of festivals in Rome, the number of them increased from the beginning of the Republic Cerialia - In honour of Ceres, the goddess of grain o Same characteristics as Demeter - April 12-19 - Important goddess for the plebs - CEREAL!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Megalesia - In honour of the Phrygian goddess Cybele, known in Rome as Magna Mater (the Great Mother) - April 4-10  spring time - Imported into Rome in 204 BCE after consulting the Sibylline Books (collection of oracular responses) o Told the Romans that they would win the war if the cult of the goddess Cybele was brought to Rome o Brought from Phrygia to Rome o A temple for her was built on the Palatine Hill - Goddess of fertility o Protected the animals and humans o Worshipped especially during the winter times (to protect crops) - Represented on a chariot (cart) driven by lions, carries a musical instrument (tambourine) with her - Priests were present at rites, castrated themselves at her service o Romans were shocked by their rites o No Romans were allowed to become priests of this goddess - Had a lover, Attis, who died and was brought back to life Floralia - In honour of Flora - April 28 – May 3 - Involved entertainment for Romans at no extra cost - 65 BCE  Caesar was aedile and used his position to promote himself o Organized games to show himself off o Took all the credit even when the cost was shared o Organized games in honour of his deceased father o Riots could be a problem o Caesar was gaining a lot of power and the idea of hiring so many gladiators was seen as a possibility of having a private army Censors - First appointed in 443 BCE - Generally had already reached the consulship - 2 people held position - Census: register of people and property o From censere: to assess - Finished their office when their duty was completed (usually 5 years)  lustrum - Lustrum: a sacrifice that had to be performed o Suouetaurilia: sacrifice of a bull, a sheep and a pig o Main priest wore a veil o Lustrum started to have the meaning “period of 5 years” st - At the end of the 1 c. BCE  the office was limited to 18 months - Wore toga praetexta - Sat on sella curulis - Held auspicial - Supervised the morals of the community - Review of the membership of the Senate - Summoned people in Campus Martius in Rome - Citizens were registered in tribes and centuriae - People and their property were listed o Army o Centuriae (groups of 100 men) 
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