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Experiments (week 8).docx

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School
Queen's University
Department
Sociology
Course
SOCY 210
Professor
Vincent F Sacco
Semester
Fall

Description
Experiments  Why experiment? o Allows to explore causal relationships o Ideal for hypothesis testing o Better suited for explanatory than descriptive o Involves taking action and noting the consequences that follow that action  Observing results o Eg. Light experiment. Influence of group on individual answers o Favor of the majority. How groups develop norms and influence people. Group pressures. o Duncan watts  Internet experiment - Mona Lisa most popular painting, looked at social process that deduces people to see special characteristics o See difference between the most popular songs and good characteristic sounds o Small differences turn to big differences o Snowball effect  George Kelly o Patrol experiment Kansas o People tend to focus on rapid response on police and preventive control o We accept safety on faith o Devided city into zones with similar characterisitics, used 3 different kinds of police patrol. One area had several patrol, one area had no patrol , control area had normal policing  Examine crime rates and feeling of safety  Nothing changed.  Experiment can inform public policies Pure Experimental Design  Experiments designed effectively when they minimize lack of internal validity and lack of external validity  Internal validity o Consequences at end of experiment are a product of the intervention of the experiment. o They did not happen for another reason. Causal process  External validity o Genaralizability of what you find, can it be generalized beyond that experiment, o Is it unique to that specific setting and only produced outcome in that on setting o Better to have external validity than internal validity o Experiments tend to be artificial  Process that occur in the lab may not occur in real life  Interaction between testing situation and stimulus  Pretest can sensitize subjects o External invalidity can occur when experimental sample is not representative of the population  Maximize benefits and minimizes threats to internal validity  Experiment runs parallel o Control group and experimental group, randomizing groups  Post test in experiment should be different from control group.  Pre test, post test, o Internal validity Quasi Experiment  Takes place in natural setting and not controlled setting  Can divide into groups- groups with different thoughts  No pre tests for these experiments GET SLIDES FOR TOPIC 6 3 Types of Pre Experimental Design  One shot case study o Single group of subjects measured on dependant variable following a stimulus o No control group, just take post test measures o No pre test, can't tell of dependant variable was the same before the stimulus o Don't know how strong dependant variable was without a pre test o There is no time sequence, no causal time sequence  Don't know if film preceded attitude of fear  One group Pre Test - Post Test design o No control group o Pre test before stimulus  Don't know if stimulus is attributed to results or from something else without control group  Lack of internal validity  Static group comparison o Added control groups which receives no stimulus o Can measure different post tests o No pretests  Different levels of dependant variable between groups, but without pretest we cannot be sure if it was attributed to another variable Post Test Only Design + Control Group  Randomization o Experimental group  Stimulus, Post Test o Control group  Post test  Compare post tests Soloman Four Group Design  Group 1 o Pretest, Stimulus, Post test  Compare pre test and post test  Group 2 o Pre Test, Post Test  Compare pretest and post test 
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