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SOCY 303 Midterm: Lecture 5 (Week 3)

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SOCY 303
W.Andrew Silver

Jan. 17, 2017 SOCY 303 – Lecture # 5 (Week 3) • Last Time: o Technology and knowledge claims o Exclusion and market closure • Today: o Textbook review: Chapters 1-3. 5 o Review Parkin: exclusion and closure o Authority and capital(s) (Bourdieu) o Case studies on knowledge claims:  Timmersmans (2005)  Harrits and Larsen (2016) • Textbook Review: Chapter 1 o Key Concepts  Ascribed status  born into a status (e.g. how gender or race are distributed through professions)  Gendered division of labour  know how did division of labour look in industrial society  Agricultural revolution  created time and place that allowed people to be more creative  turning point for professions  Artisan work/craftwork  Protestant work ethic  as it relates to the development of capitalism • Textbook Review: Chapter 2 o Key Concepts  Achieved status  it is based on ability, effort, training, something they earned (flip side of ascribed status)  Guild  protect the right of workers, how gilds were anti-technology  Apprenticeship  apprenticeship were need to enter gilds; formal education required to become an engineer, pilots, etc. Not only about Jan. 17, 2017 learning new skills but about socialization – learning values and norms of the group. • Textbook Review: Chapter 3 o Key Concepts  Industrial revolution  Capitalism  Adam smith - idea of market economy (IMP); Marx - wage labour and exploitation (imp. to differentiate two different meaning (1) Marxists definition that extracts surplus value (2) exploitation of hours, skills - de-skilling (Baurberman)  Luddism/luddite  group who stands opposed to technology; smash machines worried that machines will replace human labour  Taylorism & scientific management  professional work lose work when tasks are divided  Post-industrialism • Textbook Review: Chapter 5 o Key Concepts  Technology  definition of technology (text); describing scientific knowledge/ applied knowledge  Technological determinism  technology change drives social change  Technological unemployment  Creative destruction  industries and jobs are replaced by better ones; economy advance by destroying older occupation and introducing new occupaations  Ford/Fordism  De-skilling • Professional claims in changing times o Key question: How are professions able to maintain their claims to authority, their autonomy, their expert knowledge in changing times?  Globalization Jan. 17, 2017  Technological change  Social change  Changing labour markets o One way to address this question:  By forming dominant groups and excluding others (Parking 1979) o But, what factors shape who gets access to these dominant groups?  Economic, cultural, social, symbolic capital (Bourdieu) • Authority over knowledge claims (Parkin 1979) o Most powerful groups in society have authority over knowledge claims o “Closure” and “exclusion” key to being part of dominant groups  Closure: ➢ Group strategy of monopolising access to certain rights, privileges, or resources ➢ Legal restrictions are placed on certain items in order to limit the number of people who have access to them: ensures larger shares for fewer people (p.44)  Exclusion: ➢ A “process by which social collectivities seek to maximize rewards by restricting access to resources and opportunities to a limited circle eligible” (Parking, p.44) ➢ Two primary forms of exclusion
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