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Ryerson University
ACC 406
George Gekas

JOB ORDER COST SYSTEMS Dr. George A Gekas These notes are posted on blackboard to high light and complement certain aspects of the topic, facilitate those students who may have missed my lecture, balance traditional with internet based learning and overall enhance students learning. The notes are not meant to suggest what may be in the exams, replace textbook studying and/or problem solving. There are two distinct types of cost accounting systems: 1. Job order cost system 2. Process cost system Both systems produce the same results: calculate manufacturing costs, unit cost, cost of inventories on hand and cost of goods sold. Job order cost systems are used by companies that manufacture “one of a kind” products or products that tailor to the specifications of individual customers. In a job order cost system the cost of direct costs and manufacturing costs are accumulated separately for each job. If each job contains more than one unit of product the unit costs are determined by dividing the total accumulated job cost by the number of units produced. Job order cost systems are used by construction firms, ship builders, motion picture studios, furniture makers, print shops, repair shops, hospitals (each patient represents a job), law firms, accounting firms and others. Under a job order cost system manufacturing costs are charged separately for each job to the work in process inventory (WIP) account. This controlling account is supported by a subsidiary ledger of job cost sheets for each job performed. The job cost sheets are completed when the job is done. It shows the cost of direct materials (D/M) the direct labour (D/L) (e.g. hours times the hourly rate), the manufacturing overhead (O/H) (e.g. rate times hours) and the total of all three. The total of D/M, D/L and O/H divided by the number of units produced shows the total cost per unit. Accounting for D irect Material (D/M) Accounting for D/M is simple. Purchases of raw material inventories are recorded to the purchases journal then posted to the subsidiary ledger of materials. To obtain material for the production process a materials requisition form is issued from the - 2 - production to the warehouse. At the end of the month, a summary entry is made. A debit to WIP inventory and a credit to material inventory, for all materials issued from the warehouse. - 3 - Accounting for Direct Labour (D/L) The direct labour costs applicable to each specific job are calculated from the time cards of each employee. As employees do specific jobs we debit D/L and credit payroll payable. As payments to direct factory workers are made we debit D/L and credit cash. At the end of the month, a summary entry is made debiting WIP and crediting D/L. Since the D/L account is debited when work is done and credited when workers are paid the cost charged to jobs (credited) is most of the times greater to the payments (debit). The difference represents wages payable. Payments to indirect factory workers (e.g., security guards) are debited to manufacturing overhead. Accounting for Overhead (O/H) Manufacturing overhead is a controlling account that includes all manufacturing costs other than D/M and D/L. In order to calculate the total manufacturing costs we need to apply (add) manufacturing costs to Direct Material and Direct Labour costs. Since we do not know in advance what the Overhead costs are going to be we need to estimate them. This is done by calculating the predetermined O/H rate. The predetermined O/H is calculated as: the total Budgeted O/H costs over the total Budgeted units in the activity base. The predetermined rate times the total number of units produced provides the total applied manufacturing O/H. Applied (Estimated manufacturing Overhead costs are credited. Actual manufacturing costs, (when they are determined at the end of the accounting period) are debited. Example: Total budgeted manufacturing costs$360,000 Total budgeted production hours 10,000 Total number of units produced 2,000 Predetermined O/H Rate: $360 000/ 10 000 hrs = $36 Applied O/H: $36 x 2,000 units = $72,000 To provide reliable results accurate applied O/H the activity bases must be a true d
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