These are the 2 stages of construction

9 Pages

Architectural Science
Course Code
ASC 102
Arthur Wrigglesworth

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Pre-Design CHOP 2.3.4
o Occurs before the commencement of schematic design
o Architects are qualified to prove a range of pre-design services such as:
Feasibility studies
Site analysis & selection
Building surveys, audits, measured
Functional drawings
Master plans
Organization & strategic planning
Financial & business plan
Organizing architectural
Arranging for purpose call
o Activities are additional services with the possible exception of basic site analysis
The Consultant Team
-Most pre-design services require special expertise, so the architect assembles a consultant team by:
Identifying specialized knowledge
Being aware of the full range of their own capabilities as problem solvers
Staying up to date in specialized fields
Most architects are about to:
provide overview that pre-design involves
understanding the needs of the client
Architects act as leaders in design teams of consultants providing pre-design services.
In addition to design professionals (engineers and landscape architects), they may need to engage
outside consultants for: see full list in CHOP 2.3.4
functional programming
urban planning
space planning
cost estimating
real estate approval
market research
historical research
environmental planning
Feasibility Studies
o functional programs, general space requirements to identify scope of project
o studies of urban design objective
o environmental impact analysis
o financial studies (costs of operating and maintenance)
o potential sites, value of land
o work schedules
o etc. see CHOP 2.3.4 for entire list
Feasibility studies examine:
official plans and community plans
zoning and land use control
designated activity districts and herritage in cities
transportation issues
building codes
environmental issues
civic design panels
They assess:
existing structures and adaptive re-use for the future
value of heritage conservation
Governments are under pressure to reduce capital spending on public projects. This is why for
government clients, feasibility studies may include exploration of economics partnerships with private
o a.kX]Pv](U(]o]]}PuUZ]µo}PuU}Áv[uv}(
requirement, space needs analysis
o developed between the architect and client and defines the problem, can result in better design
o describes the requirements which a building must satisfy in order to enhance human activity
o Z]Æu]vZo]v[Á}o]v]o
o architect should identify, research and observe users of the proposed building
o architect develops approximate floor areas
o architect should advice client of alternatives (cost wise)
o final functional program is a report including:
o bubble and diagrams
o o]vP}oU]^]uP_
o size of spaces
o o]u]vÇµPYX
Programming Skills
x organizations behaviour
x future objective
x success measurement
x social responsibility
x decision making
Architect needs to have good interpersonal and facilitating skills.
If stakeholders in a building project have conflicting views, architect must clarify issues, and find the best
Data management ties together all info in a functional program. Architect must present this data to client
to enable client to make effective decisions.
BOMA- Building Owners and Managers Association
Site Analysis
x evaluation of existing or potential site to the building program, budget, and construction
x /vÀ}oÀ}oo]}v~o]uUZÌU}ÇY
x Zoning and other regulations (floor area ratio, permitted area, parking, etc.)
Master Planning
x Long term development strategies for sites
x Follows after functional programming
x Eo]Z}}(Z}Pu[P]uouv]}v}À]u
Organizational Planning
x Organized plan for alterations of the building, which the architect is involved
Financial Planning
x Usually addressed in pre-design
x General cost planning
x Typically v^}(}u_]voµ]vP(]vv]vP}U}(µvY
x dZ]ovZ}µo]v](Ç^Z}ÁZµ]o]vPµ]oM_~}}(}i
x Establishes capital cost of unit area basis
Feasibility Study: A report which outlines the research and subsequent analysis to determine the
variability and practicability of a project. A feasibility study analyzes economic, financial, market.
Functional Program: A written statement which describes various criteria and data for a building project,
including design objectives, site requirements and constraints, spatial requirements & relationships,
building systems and equipment, and future expandability.
scope, including a financial and scheduling plan.

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Pre-DesignCHOP2.3.4 o Occurs beforethecommencementofschematicdesign o Architectsarequalifiedtoprovearangeofpre-designservicessuchas: ƒ Feasibilitystudies ƒ Organization&strategicplanning ƒ Siteanalysis&selection ƒ Financial&businessplan ƒ Buildingsurveys,audits,measured ƒ Re-zoning drawings ƒ Organizingarchitectural ƒ Functionaldrawings competition ƒ Masterplans ƒ Arrangingforpurposecall o Activitiesareadditionalserviceswiththepossibleexceptionofbasicsiteanalysis TheConsultantTeam -Most pre-designservicesrequirespecialexpertise,sothearchitectassemblesaconsultantteamby: ƒ Identifyingspecializedknowledge ƒ Beingawareofthe fullrangeoftheirowncapabilitiesasproblemsolvers ƒ Stayingupto date inspecializedfields Most architectsare aboutto: ƒ provideoverviewthatpre-designinvolves ƒ understandingtheneedsoftheclient Architectsact as leadersindesignteamsofconsultantsprovidingpre-designservices. In additiontodesignprofessionals(engineersandlandscapearchitects),theymayneedtoengage outsideconsultantsfor:seefulllist in CHOP 2.3.4 ƒ functionalprogramming ƒ realestateapproval ƒ urban planning ƒ marketresearch ƒ spaceplanning ƒ historicalresearch ƒ cost estimating ƒ environmentalplanning FeasibilityStudies o functionalprograms,generalspacerequirementstoidentifyscopeofproject o studiesofurbandesignobjective o environmentalimpactanalysis o financialstudies(costsofoperatingandmaintenance) o potentialsites,valueofland o workschedules o etc.seeCHOP 2.3.4 forentirelist Feasibilitystudiesexamine: ƒ officialplansandcommunityplans ƒ zoningandlanduse control ƒ designatedactivitydistrictsandherritageincities ƒ transportationissues ƒ buildingcodes ƒ environmentalissues ƒ civicdesignpanels Theyassess: ƒ existingstructuresandadaptivere-useforthefuture ƒ valueofheritageconservation Governmentsareunderpressuretoreducecapitalspendingonpublicprojects.Thisiswhyfor governmentclients,feasibilitystudiesmayincludeexplorationofeconomicspartnershipswithprivate sector. µL š]}Lo9Œ}2ŒKK]L2;::^‰Œ}oKÁooZššZ]ZoŒÇZoZ}oÀ_ o a.k:Z]2LŒ]Z7 ]o]š]Z‰Œ}2ŒKZ7Œ Z]š šµŒo‰Œ}2ŒKZ7}ÁLŒ[ZZššKLš} requirement,spaceneedsanalysis o developedbetweenthearchitectandclientanddefinestheproblem,canresultinbetterdesign o describestherequirementswhichabuildingmustsatisfyinordertoenhancehumanactivity o Œ Z]š šKµZšÆK]LšZ o]Lš[ZÁ}Œo]Lš]o o architectshouldidentify,researchandobserveusersoftheproposedbuilding o architectdevelopsapproximatefloorareas o architectshouldadviceclientofalternatives(costwise) o finalfunctionalprogramisareportincluding: o bubbleanddiagrams o o]LšZ2}oZ7Z]Œ^]K2_ o sizeofspaces o ‰Œo]K]LŒÇµ2š;: ProgrammingSkills N organizationsbehaviour N futureobjective N successmeasurement N socialresponsibility N decisionmaking Architectneedstohavegoodinterpersonalandfacilitatingskills. Ifstakeholdersinabuildingprojecthaveconflictingviews,architectmustclarifyissues,andfindthebest compromise. Datamanagementtiestogetherall infoinafunctionalprogram.Architectmustpresentthisdatatoclient to enableclienttomakeeffectivedecisions. BOMA- BuildingOwnersandManagersAssociation SiteAnalysis N evaluationofexistingorpotentialsitetothebuildingprogram,budget,andconstruction schedule N /LÀ}oÀZš }oo š]}L~ o]Kš7ZÌŒZ7‰Œ}‰ŒšÇ; N Zoningandotherregulations(floorarearatio,permittedarea,parking,etc.) MasterPlanning N Long termdevelopmentstrategiesforsites N Followsafterfunctionalprogramming N EZšo]ZZZ‰Œ} ZZ}šZ‰Œ}2ŒK[ZZš2]K‰oKLšš]}L}ÀŒš]K OrganizationalPlanning N Organizedplanforalterationsofthebuilding,whichthearchitectisinvolved FinancialPlanning N Usuallyaddressedinpre-design N Generalcostplanning N Typically‰ŒZLšZ^‰Œ}}ŒK_]L oµ]L2]LL ]L2 }ZšZ7ŒšZ}ŒšµŒL; N @Z]Z‰oLZZ}µo]Lš]Ç^Z}ÁKµ Zµ]o]L2KµZšµ]ošM_~Z }‰}‰Œ}E š N Establishescapitalcostofunitareabasis Definitions FeasibilityStudy:Areportwhichoutlinestheresearchandsubsequentanalysistodeterminethe variabilityandpracticabilityofaproject.Afeasibilitystudyanalyzeseconomic,financial,market. FunctionalProgram:Awrittenstatementwhichdescribesvariouscriteriaanddatafora buildingproject, includingdesignobjectives,siterequirementsandconstraints,spatialrequirements&relationships, buildingsystemsandequipment,andfutureexpandability. Pre-Z]2L^ŒÀ] [email protected]Œ Z]š šµŒoZŒÀ] Z‰Œ}À]‰Œ]}Œš}šZšŒ]š]}Lo^Z] ZŒÀ] Z_}µšo]L scope,includingafinancialandschedulingplan. SchematicDesignCHOP2.3.5 o o]Lš[ZŒ‹µ]ŒKLšZLZ]ŒZZZµKŒ Z]š šµŒo}ŒK: o Architectcan providecreativityandabilitytosynthesisrequirements o Clientandarchitectdiscusskeyissuesofprojectandagreeonan architecturalformto accommodatethem o Œ Z]š ššZšZ o]Lš[Z‰Œ}2ŒK7oÁÇZl‰]L2 }Zšlµ2š]LK]L7Z]Zoš}EµZšl ZL2 theprogram detailsinthisstage.(finetuningelements) o Architectassemblesdesignteamto: ƒ Investigatenewtypesofconstruction Client/ArchitectRelationship o Bestwhenclientactivelyparticipatesinthedevelopmentofthedesign o Architectmustencouragecommunicationandensurealldesignissuesandconstructionbudgets are opento discussion. o Minutesofmeetingsshouldbetakendown o Architectshouldsuggestthatclientprovidetimelyapprovalsandinfoonfunctionrequirements InformationRequiredatSchematicDesign o Clientisresponsibleforprovidingadesignbrieforfunctional programaddressing: ƒ Functionalandspatialrelationships ƒ Flexibility ƒ Specialequipment ƒ Siterequirements ƒ Constructionbudget ƒ Timeschedule Clientisalsoresponsibleforfulldocumentationofthesite.(legalsurveys,reports,etc) Architectmayhelpclienš]šZÇ}L[šZÀoošZŒ‹µ]Œ]L}7µšZµ22ZššZššZ o]Lš2}Z Z‰ ]o]Zšš}‰Œ}À]L ZZŒÇ]L}7ZŒ Z]š š[Zo]]o]šÇ]LZµŒL }ZL[š }ÀŒZµ-consultants. o /Œ Z]š šL o]Lš}L[šZÀLµLŒZšL]L2}šZ‰Œ}E š7]šwillbedelayed. o Beforeproceedingtodetaileddesign,architectsmustmeetwithAuthoritiesHaveJurisdiction o A detailedanalysisofthebuildingcodeisnecessaryatthisstage! Space,CirculationandMassingStudies o Architectpreparesseriesofdiagramstocomparativesizeandrelationshipsofnfunctionalareas and spacesprovided o Pedestrianandvehiclecirculationdiagrams o In largeprojectarchitectwillaskclienttoapprovediagrams o Usingsketches&blockmodels EngineeringServicesforSchematicDesign o Architectassemblesdesignteam+structural,mechanical,andelectricalengineers o Sub-consultantsmayberequired o Engineeringsub-consultantshelppreparetheconstructionbudgetsubmittedatcompletionof schematicdesign DesignAlternatives:EvaluationandSelection o Architectmaypreparedesignalternativesfortheclienttoconsider o Quickdiagrammaticstudiestoshowcirculation,planning,volumetricaspectswithout architecturaldetail o Architectprovidesbasiclevelofservicesaswellasextensive servicesthatareidentifiedtothe clientasoptionalandadditional BuildingCostAnalysis o Architectpreparespreliminarycostestimatesbasedontheareaorvolumeoftheproposed buildingmultipliedbytheappropriateunitcosts DocumentationandPresentation o Illustratesthefunctionalre
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