1. Calorie: the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°C
Kilocalorie: the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by
Fat Lipids Required in large amounts
Minerals Required in small amounts
5. Necessary nutrients can be made by the body if lacking in diet, while essential nutrients
cannot be supplied by the body and must be made from nutrients supplied by external
-C, H, O, N and small amounts of other elements
-most are enzymes
-see table 8.3 page 249
7. Fat soluble: A, D, E, K
Water soluble: B, C
8. Major minerals are required in large amounts while trace are required in small amounts
9. LDL cholesterol – bad: obtained from diet, plaque formation on artery walls, carried to
body from liver
HDL cholesterol – good: clean body of excess cholesterol, carried from body to liver
1. See diagram
2. See diagram
3. Mechanical digestion is physical break down of food (chewing/churning) while chemical
digestion is using enzymes to break large particles into smaller ones.
4. Saliva starts chemical digestion, prevents tooth decay, protects the soft inside mouth,
lubricates and softens food
5. Bolus is a ball of food mixed with saliva formed by the tongue. 6. Peristalsis is the involuntary wave-like muscular action (contraction) that moves food
7. Epiglottis prevents food from entering the lungs by blocking the glottis
8. Gastric juice contains a variety of substances that aid in the digestion(breakdown) of food
9. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
10. Main function of small intestine is to absorb nutrients.
11. Because its diameter is considerably greater than the diameter of the small intestine.
12. The inner surface of the small intestine is not flat but thrown into circular folds(increase
s.a. 3x). Also, the villi(increase s.a. 10x) and microvilli(increase s.a 20x) help to increase
surface area in the small intestine. The increased surface area allows for more area for
13. Has no known function, but food can get trapped there causing bacteria to lodge in the
14. 3 functions of pancreas
a. Produces chemicals that neutralize stomach acids that pass from the stomach into
the small intestine by using substances in pancreatic juice.
b. Secretes hormones that affect the level of sugar in the blood.
c. Completes the job of breaking down protein, carbohydrates, and fats using
digestive juices of pancreas combined with juices from the intestines.
15. Functions of liver (know 2)
a. To produce substances that break down fats
b. Convert glucose to glycogen
c. Make certain amino acids (the building blocks of proteins)
d. Filter harmful substances from the blood (such as alcohol)
e. Producing cholesterol.
16. Bile is stored in the gallbladder, and discharged into the duodenum and aids in the
emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats
17. Enzyme is a biological catalyst(speeds up