i 1. What are chromosomes other than sex chromosomes called?
c Chromosomes other than sex chromosomes are called autosomes. Each human sperm or egg cell contains
_ 22 autosomes and one sex chromosome.
p 2. Explain the different between cytokinesis in animal cells and plant cells.
i Cytokinesis is the period during the cell cycle in which the cytoplasm separates to form two new
daughter cells. Cell division occurs after mitosis. In plant cells, a new cell wall forms to divide the cell
d into two daughter cells. In animals cells,the cleavage furrow forms as the cell membrane is pinched
l inwards to divide the cytoplasm equally to form two new daughter cells.
_ 3. Why must cytokinesis occur after, rather than before, anaphase?
a Cytokinesis must occur after anaphase because before anaphase the chromatids are still bound together
p by the centromere. If cytokinesis was to occur at this point, each new daughter cell would not have a
complete copy of chromosomes. During anaphase, the chromatids are pulled apart to opposite sides of the
a cell by spindle fibres to ensure each new cell contains one of the chromatids, and therefore the same
r genetic information. This is essential for the performance, and survival of the cell.
t 4. What functions does cell division accomplish?
u 1. cell division allows for growth and development.Azygote starts off as a single cell and divides and
reproduces to form a fetus. Cells continue to divide as the baby grows to be an adult.
_ 2. cell division allows to regenerate damaged tissues. For ex: your skin cells divide and reproduce new
a cells to replace damaged/lost skin from injuries.
n 3. cell division is also necessary for maintenance of the body. Some cells need to be replaced because
d they cannot function properly. Other cells need to be replaced when they die. EX: millions of red blood
_ cells die every day, and are replaced by new ones.
5. Describe the functions of the mitotic spindle apparatus and the centromere.
e The centromere holds the two sister chromatids together. Sister chromatids are genetic copies of each
_ other. The centromere holds the chromatids together through the prophase, and metaphase. Once mitosis
c reaches the anaphase, the spindle apparatus attach to opposite sides of the chromatids which are aligned
e in the middle of the cell. The main function of the spindle apparatus is to pull the two chromatids apart
n and separate them to opposite sides of the cell. This is to ensure that each new daughter cell has a copy of
t the cells genetic information which lies in the chromosomes.
o 6. Why is the replication process during interphase so important to cell division?
m Chromosomes within the nucleus of a cell hold the genetic information needed to main