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Unit 4 bio lesson 4 and 5.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BLG 144
Professor
Richard Stew

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T h e Digestive System Review Unit # 4 Lesson 4 -5 Questions s 1. t Differentiate between physical and chemical digestion and state the function of o eacm. Phyaical digestion is where the food is physically broken down into smaller pieces, such as in the mouch. This is done to increase surface area, and also because substances have to move across a cell's memhrane to get inside of it. The substance must be small enough to pass through the membrane, and also be in solution. Physical digestion serves to break down food into smaller pieces and also mix it with gastric juices so the food can be in solution. This thick liquid is called chyme Chemical digestion is when the food is chemically broken down into smaller molecules by the aid of acids and enzymes for the absorption of nutrients. It serves to break complex molecules in the food into smaller ones so that they can pass through cell membranes, where they are used as needed. i n 2. Define ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination. - ingestion: refers to how food is taken in and broken down inside the mouth. In humans, food is broken down in the mouth physically by teeth and chemically by saliva. In teeth, the incisors aid in cutwing, canines aid in tearing, premolars aid grinding, molars aid crushing the food. Saliva moistens andilubricates food so it passes down easily into the esophagus. - dtgestion: refers to the chemical breakdown of large food molecules into smaller molecules that can be hsed by cells. - absorption:absorption takes place in the small intestine. The intestines walls are covered with villi whiach maximize the surface area available to absorb nutrients. Once nutrients are absorbed across the intestinal walls, nutrients enter the circulatory system and are delivered to the rest of the body. - elimination:elimination removes toxic waste from our bodies. Indigestible material that remains at the end of digestion is called feces. The material passes into the rectum and anal canal. From there, the feces passes out of the body through the anus. c k 3. Why are you able to swallow water while standing on your head? FooT moves by the process of peristalsis. Circular and longitudinal muscles contract to push the food forward. Once the water is in your throat, peristalsis pushes/ moves it to the stomach; regardless of a whiyh way you are standing, it has no effect on peristalsis. e 4. r How do the teeth and tongue function in digestion? t As o mentioned previously, the teeth aid in the physical digestion of food by chewing (cutting, grinding, andmcrushing food so it can be broken down into smaller pieces. The tongue aids in positioning the food inside the mouth as we chew it. It is muscular and pushes food to the back of the mouth where it a is mwallowed. The upper surface of the tongue is also covered with structures called papillae, which houue our taste buds and allow us to tell whether our food is sweet, bitter, salty, etc. c u 5. s What prevents food from entering the trachea? Whei you swallow, the esophagus and the trachea move up against a covering called the epiglottis, a flan-like structure. This actions seals off or closes the epiglottis and food is prevented from entering theRtrachea. e a d s m 6. What is the purpose of saliva? Saliva is a mixture of water and amylase, which is an enzyme that breaks down starch into smaller disaccharide sugar molecules. Saliva also moistens and lubricates food when it enters the mouth so it can be passed down to the next part of the digestive system more readily. There is a continuous secretion of amylase to keep the mouth moist. 7. What prevents self-digestion of the stomach? The stomach contains a thick mucus lining. This protects the stomach from the harmful effects of the acidic environment of the stomach and stops the stomach from self-digestion. 8. What is the combined effect of sphincter muscles and peristalsis in the stomach? When the sphincters muscles are closed, food is confined to remain inside the stomach and is subjected to churning and gastric juice. Peristalsis pushes the food down and along the stomach by wavelike muscular contractions and relaxations, as it is broken down and mixed with gastric juices. 9. What would be the result if the stomach did not have sphincter muscles? If the stomach did not have sphincter muscles, food would not remain long enough inside the stomach to be digested. Food would keep entering the stomach from the esophagus and since there would be no pyloric sphincter to control the flow of food leaving the stomach, the food would not remain inside the stomach for a long enough time. Also, a cardiac sphincter prevents food in the stomach from reentering into the esophagus. Without the splinter, the food (mixed with acid) would splash back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn. 10. How are stomach acids neutralized by pancreatic secretion
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