POST MIDTERM NOTES (EXAM)
A step towards the reinvention of graphic design – gui bonsiepe
- The term graphic design and its corresponding term “graphic designer” have strong ties with a
particular technology ex. Printing. Therefore, graphic design runs the risk of not covering new
phenomena that result from technological innovations. Such as: audiovisual means, multimedia,
and information management
- graphic designers are mainly a visualizer, one who organizes visual components then with the
help of printing technology, can create them. (ads, posters, displays, signage, exhibitions,
- information and its organization – information explosion . glut, visual pollution
- I propose to shift the role of the graphic designer from translation of information from a non-
visual state into a visual state, to the authorial organization of information. This reflects recent
changes in technology known under terms like hypermedia, and hypertext, where the world is
seen as a huge data bank in which the reader is author of the information molecules that he or
she collects or establishes with.
- a profile of profession can be defined with the help of a three dimensional matrix:
1. Concerns – that are brought into play by a particular profession and that are addressed under
a particular perspective (approach)
2. The objects of professional activity
3. The competencies (know-how) necessary to act efficiently in a particular domain
- one could say that the final aim of the info-designer is not communication, but effective action
- the info designer concentrates his or her attention on what I call “informational opacity” - they
would be a specialist in articulating information and provides techniques to navigate in a highly
complex information universe.
-apart from traditional printed objects, the info-designer would assume responsibility for new
groups of communication artifacts that are based on informatics or computers: interface design
for computer programs, design of “info bodies” for formation, instruction and entertainment,
the design of audio visual means
Designerly Ways of Knowing: Design Discipline Versus Design Science - Nigel
- a desire to “scientise” design can be traced back to ideas in the twentieth century
modern movement of design.
- the 1960s was heralded as the “design science decade” - who called for a design
science revolution - based on science, technology, and rationalism to overcome the
human and environmental problems that he believed could not be solved by politics
- scientists try to identify the components of existing structures, designers try
to shape the components of new structures - the scientific method is a pattern of problem-solving behavior employed in finding
out the nature of what exists, whereas the design method is a pattern of behavior
employed in inventing things which do not yet exist
- the natural sciences are concerned with how things are … design on the other
hand is concerned with how things ought to be
// 4 more pages - sorry future paul
If designs no longer the killer differentiator, what is? – John Maeda
-“nobody wants objects or experiences that just do the job – they want something they want to
do the job with”
-people began to compete with design instead of technology, though designed objects have
become the norm – some would even say “boring”
- design is no longer the differentiator
- started becoming easier than ever to develop and deploy sophisticated web services.
- prototyping became simpler, and more widespread
- people are looking for a way to reconnect with their values: to ground how they can, will and
should live in the world.
- don’t confuse design with art – designers create solutions – the products and services that
propel us forward. Artists create questions – the deep probing of purpose and meaning that
sometimes takes us backward and sideways to reveal which way “forward” actually is.
- an artist – someone who often enhances his own welfare and even is life for a cause that may
have no meaning to anyone else, but means everything to him or her.
- steve jobs example – we buy his products not just because they function, not just because they
are well designed, but out of respect for the integrity of his work – because we buy into the
vision of the future world he was trying to create and the values they represent for us
- we want the products to be made responsibly, sold truthfully, to have come from the mind of a
human being just like us, not an algorithm
- Art speaks to us as humans, not as human capital – art says that human beings still matter in a
world dominated by money
-technical skills as the drivers of innovation?
-STEM – science, technology, engineering, mathematics – must add A for art
MacNaghten (2000) – Bodies in the Woods
- how bodies are in, and of “nature”
- many commentators agree that there is something natural about being in the presence of
trees, and that certain kinds of trees or arrangements of trees bring ones body into a closer
relationship with the natural world
- trees culturally signify a universal “natural” message
- the nature of these thoughts varies from society to society, powerfully different social
myths have been woven into branches of cultures
- in America, the discovery of the Big Trees of California was seen as an American
godsend, the revelation of the uniqueness of America and of the particular chosen character of the American people
- In Germany, forests have been viewed as representing the spirit of militarism, an
embodied memory that the modernizing Nazis deployed and developed. Hitler was often
photographed in a wood setting, as well as introduced woodland protection.
- large areas of Poland were subjected to a total landscape plan I which villages were
depopulated and the land turned into hunting forests, in Poland, forests has long stood for
the enduring struggle for national freedom against various outside invaders.
- in France, forests have represented the passion for order and rational planning by the
-In England the forest has stood for the idea that liberty against a despot could be attained
by those living under the greenwood tree (as in the robin hood myth).
- New meanings and uses of woods and forests have often accompanied patterns of
- In South Asia, religions and cultures had all been rooted in the forests, and they were
seen as places of dwelling where humans and nature were linked
- Forests were soon transformed into timber mines based upon the newly emergent
science of forestry.
- Tree symbolism - across numerous cultures and societies trees are used as symbols of
trans generational continuity, the validity and self generation of trees symbolic of life
Romanian folklore – fruit trees are associated with death and marriage rituals, in South
India the coconut tree is planted on the grave representing the life force of the dead, while
in Papua New Guinea the red pandanus tree is used in male initiation ceremonies.
- The endurance of trees can also express patterns of social continuity and stability.
- Trees and woods rather are very much part of everyday life, especially in the traditional
Japanese family, where the focus of concern is to tie the fortunes of the ei to long term
patterns of care and nurturance’s, in other words the rhythms of trees and woods.
- Tree symbolosim – In south india, different trees symboloize different forms of
continuity: while the banyan tree represents the village community as a whole, the
coconut palm symbolizes the life cycle of individuals
- Role of trees in ancient times
Ancient trees are often seen as signifiers of the long-established naturally occurring
organic communities that had grown up alongside these trees.
- The seasonality of trees – with leaves growing an then falling, can be viewed as
denoting the natural seasons which modern, urban socieities have threatened to destroy.
While trees are identified with humans, and admired for their longevity, their great
proportions, potency and self-generating energy, this is contrasted to all that
appears false and superficial and instantaneous in consumer-oriented society.
- trees stand in opposition to manufactured goods, spectacularly those of arms and cars,
the symbols of death and decay – hence the numbers of people who risk their bodies to
save the trees from things such as airports and streets
-many respect trees due to their upright position, like the human body, and appear
majestically defenceless against progress.
- what is noteworth is that there is little or no research into how specific social groups do
in fact engage with and perform their bodies in different kinds of wooded environments
in the West -Gibson argues that in the environment we do not encounter a set of objective things, that
may or may not be visually perceived, but rather we encounter different surfaces and
different objects relative to the human organisms
- this research demonstrates first that there are significant contested and ambivalent
affordances provided by woods and forests in contemporary Britain. Second, there
is considerable variation in the embodied experiences of trees between different
social groups; there are, we might say, different “contested natures” in the forest.
And third, those organizations concerned with “managing” such places deal
problematically with the embodied relationship that some groups have with trees,
woods, and forests.
// rest seems like focus group shit, don’t think I needa keep reading but who noes
Solomon M (1990) – The Power of Punctuation
- one of the first rules of grammar we learn is the use of punctuation marks
- there are style guides that dictate when they must be used, however most of us use them
in a flexible manner, omitting and substituting quite often.
-Application is based on tradition and personal style
- most punctuation marks are composed to be seen but not heard.
- punctuation directs tempo, pitch, volume, and the separation of words. Periods signify
full stops. Quotation marks indicate references.
- Symbols in music perform comparable functions
- During the performance of a piece of music, each conductor interprets the intensities
and durations of these notations according to his or her own style
- Punctuation marks have tonal value just as letter forms do; they also have mass and
energy, which may vary according to structure
- with punctuation marks, designers can create illustrations without pictures. A single line
of copy set in a light typeface contrasted with a bold, larger period creates a more
dynamic stop than a period of conventional size and weight
-the contrast in size and weight indicates to the reader, that an important message is being
- asterisk function as visual movers, telling the reader to go to another location for a
reference or definition.
-positioning of punctuation is important
- One frequent application in which punctuation is taken for granted is the telephone
number. They have traditionally been indicated by parentheses enclosing the area code
and a hyphen separating the next three numbers.
-Punctuation such as parentheses and hyphens are designed to center on the x-height
letters and, as a result, sit low in relation to lining numbers.
- punctuation is to typography what perspective is to painting. It introduces the
illusion of visual and audible dimension, giving words vitality. Whether prominent
or subtle, punctuation marks are the heartbeat of typography, moving words along
in proper timing and with proper emphasis Zimmer M (2008) – The Externalities of search 2.0
- by capturing the information flowing across web 2.0, search engines can better predict
users’ needs and wants, and deliver more relevant and meaningful results.
- web 2.0 suggests that everyone can and should use new internet technologies to
organize and share info, to interact within communities, and to express oneself. It
promises to empower creativity, to democratize media production, and to celebrate the
individual while also relishing the power of collaboration and social networks
- Myspace, flickr, Wikipedia, myspace and youtube are all part of this second generation
internet phenonmenon. But web 2.0 also embodies a set of unintended consequences
emerging from the resultant blurring of the boundaries between web users and producers
- the focus of this article is the unintended consequence of the increased flow of
personal information across web 2.0 infrastructures, and in particular the efforts by
the Web search engines to crawl and aggregate this data in order to build profiles,
predict intentions, and deliver personalized products and services.
- This article argues that the externalitlies of search 2.0 represent a new and
powerful infrastructure of data surveillance – otherwise referred to as
“dataveillance” – as the aggregation of ones online information-seeking activates,
inflaming a growing environment of discipline and social control
- 1 ) the drive for the perfect search engine
- perfect search engine would deliver intuitive results based on users past searches and
general browsing history
-search companies have clear financial incentives to develop the perfect search engine –
it may create user allegiance
- Perfect Reach – expanding beyond just html based web pages, the search engine must
use a variety of media found on the web, including images, video files, pdfs, etc. They
can also develop various tools and services to help users organize and use information in
contexts not considered traditional web searching. These include communication and
social networking platforms, personal data management, financial data management etc.
- Perfect Recall – allowing the personalization of both services and advertising by being
able to identify and understand searchers intellectual wants, needs and desires when they
perform information seeking tasks online. The point is to know that you are searching
apples for the company, not the fruit. The primary means for search engines to obtain
perfect recall is to monitor and track ursers search habits and history. To gather users
search histories, most web search engines maintain detailed server logs recording each
web search request processed through their search engine, the pages viewed, and the
results clicked ex. As part of a government holding a pornography law, the department of
justice asked that google, yahoo and aol give search results, google denied, the rest
allowed it, but tried to keep the data anonymous but ultimately failed to, do the records of
names, telephone numbers and SS card numbers.
- various advocacy groups have criticized the engines for doing this especially since the
user seldom gets any warnings of the matter
2) Web 2.0 personal information flows
- the websites that survived the dot com bust in the late 90s realized that all surviving
web companies had certain common characteristics, they were collaborative, interactive,
dynamic, user centered, network based, and data rich. – to describe this emerging trend in web technologies and services, they coined the term web 2.0, a concept that has been
hailed as the “new wisdom of the web” and a “new cultural force based on mass
- this new web service has not been universally embraced, some dsay it is an extension of
Marxist ideology that is “inherently dangerous for the vitality of culture and