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Understanding Crime in Canadian Society - complete course notes

9 Pages

Course Code
CRM 101
Christina Hollingshead

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INTRODUCTIONGOVERNMENT ROLESResponsibilities divided between all levels of governmentFederal decide criminal offenses and lawsProvincial enforce and administer lawMunicipal policing and bylaw enforcement 1 Elected officials enact and amend laws conduct investigations on CJS practises establish budgets etc 2 Appointed bureaucrats carry out these mandates in daytday policies and practises 3 Agents carry out and apply these laws to real life situations Private security firms also protect property and maintain order Volunteers and charitable organizations help the CJS in police offices aiding victims community programs supervision of bails and paroles etc Justice system composed of police courts and correctionsInteroperability capacity of CJS agencies to share information amongst themselvesA Federal GovernmentConstitution gives Parliament absolute power in creating and amending all national laws creating prosecution procedures and establishing punishments for federal offensesOperates national police forceRCMPSecurity Intelligence ServicesAppoints and manages some judges and courtsProsecutes some federal offensesOperates corrections for 2yroffensesOperates federal parole boardsCreates international agreementsFederal StatutesCriminal Code of Canada lists all criminal violations and sets out the penalties and procedures for arrest and prosecutionCanadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is part of the Constitution Act that guarantees fundamental freedoms and rights for all people which must not be violated by the CJSthey are primary laws that cant be overrunControlled Drugs and Substances Act lists the legal statuses of all drugs and offensespenalties of possessing trafficking creating and importing themYouth Criminal Justice Act lists separate processes and sentencing for young offendersSex Offender Registration Act is a national sex offender database established to easily identify convicted offendersAntiTerrorism Act gives the CJS powers to identify prosecute convict and punish terroristsFederal agenciesPoliceRCMPCanadian Armed Forces military policeProsecutors courts and judgesagents recruited from private bar work on behalf of the Crown and provide advice on discussions of criminal laws in courtCorrectionsimprisonment and parole of inmates with 2yrsentencesBoarder servicesmaintains Canadian border and entrances with inspection enforcement and surveillanceDepartment of Justiceassists federal government in criminal lawmaking and policiesnew bills are drafted here before being debated in the House of Commons and createdamended by Parliament
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