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Midterm

SCOTT CLARK CRM102 MIDTERM #2 REVIEW

6 Pages
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Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRM 102
Professor
Scott Clark

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Description
Chapter 5 (Labeling Theory and Youth Crime) Week 6 • Crime is a social process • Those who are powerful in society determine who is ‘good’and ‘bad’ • 60s & 70s change in society took place –social division now on the political agenda • CJS and individuals in power do the labeling and decide who the “criminals” are • Those who are labeled may act a certain way –self-fulfilling prophecy (labeled individuals seek company of others who behave in a certain way aka delinquents) • This leads to stigmatization  how should the CJS deal? –Decriminalize certain activities, minimal or no intervention • We define and communicate ourselves through symbols – draw on typifications to make sense of our world • Sometimes the people we label aren’t even deviant (ex: homeless, drug addicts) • Hans Becker o Society labels what it thinks are deviant; marginalized people (homeless) & CJS criminalizes them (some aren’t event ‘deviant’), labeling makes them deviant o Those with power in society do the labeling (powerful individuals) • Lemert (1969)  (1) initial deviant behaviour leads to labeling which leads to (2) secondary deviation; the person’s self -concept changes • Labeling affects youth- should take a more hands on approach and provide rehabilitation instead • Critique: If labeling looks at different reactions is it unnecessary in situations of murder and rape where society is affected as a whole • Basics o Crime is defined by social action and reaction and by those who have power to label (they label what’s criminal and deviant) o Focuses on relationship between offender and those with power o Crime is caused by stigmatization and negative effects of labeling o Crime prevention: Decriminalization and radical non-intervention Chapter 6 (Marxist Criminology) Week 7 • Broad structure of society at fault – power differences lead to problems • Those with power define what crime is • Power in the hands of the ruling class (Those with power and money make the decisions to label “criminals”) • Society is not equal and does not aim to serve the individual • The upper classes exploit the working class • Crimes of the powerful vs. crimes of the less powerful – depends on where you are located in the class system • Crimes of the powerful are to maximize profit and crimes of the less powerful are for subsistence • Those in power define what a crime is • Working class crimes are more visible • Best way to prevent crime is to spread wealth and remove inequality • Crimes of control; police brutality • Crimes of economic domination; pollution • Crimes of government; political assassination • Crimes by the working class; burglary, assault, rape etc. • Critique: no clear definition of crime and the CJS is already pretty inefficient • Basics o Crime is anything interfering with human rights and interest in higher classes o Focus on economic and state crimes of the powerful (white-collar/corporate) and economic and socio-culture crimes of the less powerful o Crimes caused because of marginalization and criminalization of working class o Crime prevented by control over means of production and redistribution of societal resources according to need o Respond to crime by exposing extent & nature of social harm by the powerful Chapter 7 (Feminist Perspective) Week 7: • Shares some similarities with Marxist; power differences in society • Unequal distribution of resources in society • Feminists look at the structural position of women in society and the CJS • Women have always been disadvantaged – males have always dominated (Patriarchy) • Women are doubly oppressed – aboriginals (Highway of Tears) • Highway of Tears: o 720KM between Prince George and Prince Rupert a.k.a Highway of Tears o Pattern of disappearances first noticed between ’88 and ’95, mostly aboriginal aged 15-20’s vanished after seen hitchhiking along the highway o Monica Ignas, 15, murder was considered the first o Girls lying dead, parts found in other areas, was becoming a trend after ‘94 o 60+ murders of women by the accused Robert (Willy) Picton near Vancouver • Basics o Crime is male violence and institutionalized inequality and discrimination o Focus is unequal position of women in society and victimization of women o Respond to crime by social empowering women o Prevent crime by promoting equality economically, socially, and politically Property Crime (Online Reading –Gabor Chapter 4) Week 8 • Shoplifting o 1/12 – 1/20 customers shoplift, 90% are amateurs (usually no criminal record) leading up to ~$1m/day of losses for retailers o Shoplifting equally represented for both genders; teens overrepresented • Employee Theft o 3 types: Time theft, theft of cash, theft of merchandise o Costs businesses ~$15b/year (small compared to organized thefts) • Fraud o Fraud/theft aren’t differentiated; fraud may involve more deception o Fraud may involve a pen (higher end jobs) or a position of trust (CA) • Embezzlement o Theft of money/funds entrusted to one or to one’s employer o More frequent cause computer transfers are easy (new challenges for police) • Tax Fraud o Very common and costs about $30billion/year in Canada • False Insurance Claims o Over-claiming in accidents or what your insurance covers Corporate Crime (Online Reading –Walklate Chapter 6) Week 8 • Harder to notice and tell; less likely to be seen as criminal by public or CJS • Reiman (1979), Rich get rich, poor get prison o What counts as crime? Ex: murder?  Walklate Page 116 o In the U.K: More deaths from workplace health & safety issues than homicides • Definitions and Examples o White-collar crime: Offences committed by people of higher status with trust. Crimes include fraud, tax violations, etc. plus workplace theft and fiddling resulting in the firm, its customers, and other firms to be the victims o Marxists would say to broaden the definition of crime to make them criminal o Ex: shoplifting=crime but false advertising=trade practices violation (not crime) Chapter 8 (New Right Criminology) Week 9 • NR populist dimension (political process) & academic dimension (criminologists) • Based on 2 themes: (1) placing responsibility for crime on individual and (2) punishment is an appropriate response to crime • Get tough on crime and criminals –the “law and order” agenda • Prefers punishment rather than treatment (ex: Kingston Penn. = punishment) • Conserv
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