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CRM 102 EXAM.docx

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Department
Criminology
Course
CRM 102
Professor
Scott Clark
Semester
Winter

Description
What is crimeDepends on ones particular interests and particular worldview White 4Depends on your culture the norms in the society where you were born and raised Crime is socially constructed and our responses to it vary according to our perceptions our moral codes and our politicsFormal legalif its written as a criminal law and there are specific penalties then its a crimeSocial harm conceptioncriminalcivil offences eg assault and negligence both bring social harm and therefore deserve penaltiesCrosscultural universal norm argumentcrime does not vary across cultural normsLabelling approacha crime only exists when society labels an activity as a crimeHuman rights approachcrime occurs whenever a human right has been violated regardless of the legality of the actionHuman diversity approachcrime is seen as deviant behaviour resulting naturally from responses to unequal power relationsStanley CohenWhen there is a panic or overreaction to forms of deviance or wrongdoing perceived to threaten moral order eg youth gangsBy policy in the context of crime we mean the laws and regulations that are meant to govern our behaviour and to ensure the security of the public3 broad political perspectivesConservative The status quo rebels should be made to conformTraditional social relationshipscore value system to which everyone should conformValuesinstitutions should apply equally for all citizensLiberalEncourages limited change in social institutionsNeed to address specific social problems eg racism poverty but without radical changes to the overall socialeconomic structureBetter policies and programs can help solve social problemsRadicalTo undermine the legitimacy of the status quoSocial conflict is a major social concernThe key issue is who holds the power and resourcesAddressing poverty requires a restructuring of social relationsOur approach to crime is always coloured by our political perspectiveJuvenile Delinquents Act 1908kids not responsible for own behaviourdeterrence rehabilitate reformSocial welfare modelAssumed poverty school problems family problems caused delinquencyState would try to take care of youthYoung Offenders Act 1984must be accountable for actions punisheddetainedA more justice oriented ideologyMore emphasis on personal responsibilityaccountability for wrongdoingYouth Criminal Justice Act 2003compromise between the twopunishment depends on crimeResponds to those calling for more punitive actions and those calling for more special considerations for youth in trouble with the lawDangerous violent habitual offenders get strong punitive measures but less serious offenders or those not at high risk get communitybased sentencing optionsROLE OF CRIMINOLOGYTo assess reality and provide valid accurate information for 2 main reasons1 To increase our understandingknowledge of the world academic2 To support the decisionmaking and creative processes that are behind new policies and programs applied eg real crime rates effectiveness of prisonLombrosoan Italian who researched in prisons in Italy and France in the 1800s Based his theory on Darwins theory of evolution to predict criminals though he misapplied itbiological positivismpathologist characteristicsanomalies determine criminalsCesare Beccaria glass half fullThe basis for social action should always be the greatest happiness for the greatest number in societyPunishment should aim at deterrence not vengeanceJail preferable to and more appropriate than torture or deathJeremy Bentham glass half emptyPunishment should offer more pain than law breaking is worth the pleasurepain rationaleDifferentiationmeasure differences among individuals and their behaviourPathologysome differences are abnormalDeterminismfactors beyond the individuals control affect hisher behaviourMADE HIS THEORY BASED ON INCORRECT ASSUMPTIONSTHE CHICAGO SCHOOLBased on observations and assumptions about immigrant and lower socioeconomic class from the 1930sCompeting values lead to social disorganizationwhich leads to crime
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