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CRM324 midterm stuff.docx

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Ryerson University
CRM 324
Alexandra Orlova

MIDTERM: 2.5 hours, 3 essay questions, no multiple choice o 2 large essay questions MANDATORY worth 30 points each, recommended you spend an hour  First: how does notion of security change since the end of the Cold War  Second: change in treatment of terrorism – how the treatment changes from the Law approach to the War approach. Preventative war and prevention VS pre-emption and the legal regime set up, especially in the USA after 9/11, to deal with the issue of terrorism (5 components) o 3 question is worth 10 minutes, recommended you use 30 minutes. There is a choice here.  Both with deal with human trafficking, but you can select one of two questions. One will probably deal with economic circumstances and the other will probably deal with consent o A good answer will incorporate lectures, class discussions, examples from readings. How does notion of security change since the end of the Cold War Traditionally, security threats were assumed to originate from external sources and meant protecting the state, its boundaries, institutions and values from attacks by other states. Central to security was the idea of STATE security and state sovereignty. But, we saw events such as the London subway bombings, the Spanish bombings and 9/11 attacks which fed the insecurity. There were also major internal threats such as the Wall Street bombings and most recently the Boston Marathon bombing. These conversations and analyses of these attacks lead to a military response in helping solve security crises. After the Cold War, the UN has been pushing the concept of human security, incorporating it into many aspects of its evolving post-Cold War mandate. New notions of security has been expanded in two ways: (1) the number of issues to be included on the security agenda has been expanded and (2) the state is no longer the only subject in security analysis. As such, there is an understanding that the military is not equipped to handle the expanding security threats. Examples of such include drought, migration, civil conflicts as we saw in Rwanda, disease such as AIDS/HIV. We are beginning to realize that security is multi-leveled: there is security between countries, states, cities, even neighbourhoods. So, the new post-Cold War security agenda recognizes that we can no longer focus on threats of a military nature, and we must consider issues that go beyond states being in conflict with one another. Issues arising from this involve the vagueness of the limitations. How do we limit this list of threats if there are so many threats and so many security agents? What are their limitations? If someone is sent to combat a disease, are they security personnel? Another example includes financial irregularities such as mortgage collapses – are bank personnel in charge of eradicating the problem considered security combatants? We are now also looking at the expansion of the subjects of security threats. As per history, national security deals with the safety of the nation state, which involves its boundaries and institutions and sovereignty. There is also a focus on human security, which deals with the well- being and safety of the people (individuals). This portion is not strong in traditional security but the welfare of individual citizens is now also prioritized due to humanitarian intervention. Lastly, international or collective security deals with the shared interests of the entire world. There are some issues with internation
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