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CRM 601 (10)
Midterm

Midterm notes all lecture notes leading up to the midterm

6 Pages
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Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRM 601
Professor
Sara Thompson

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Description
Defining and measuring violence - Eteology = causes - Violence is a normal part of behaviour - When violence is incidental in pursuit of other goals or positive, it is not considered violence Working conventions 1. Psychological(depression after rape), social (humiliation of ruining rep) and material violence(destruction of property) 2. Violence can be through written or verbal violence a. Direct or indirect (news report leading to vigilantism) 3. Victim complicity – is the act violent if there was consent 4. Narrow legal definition on violence – to focused on interpersonal violence - Corporate violence – big business violence as well as large groups engaged in violence(war) o Can also be marketing campaigns of faulty products - Motivations for violence – can be to better the community o Some violence is motivated by positive or benevolent(facelift) reasons - People seek violence for entertainment - No motivation – incidental violence (puck in face)to the achievement of other goals Legitimacy of violence - If justifiable is it violence? Measures of violence – to see how consistent and prevalent it is How it is measured - Official data – police data, - Dark figure of crime – crime not reported and detected by police - Things not reported because of : fear of retaliation, not believable, public humiliation, lack in trust of police, street justice - Survey data – can be home phone calls or victim surveys Benefits of victim surveys: 1. Help to get at the dark figure of crime 2. Allow for an understanding why people don’t report crimes 3. Can determine effects of incident (miss work, arrest) 4. Allow for information dealing with certain demographics in order to develop patterns Drawbacks: 1. Inaccurate numbering/memory 2. Underreporting of minor incidents 3. Unable to determine accuracy - Violent crimes have been declining - (west higher crime – more east in Canada less homicide Criminological explanations of violence - Etiology – causes of violence - No single answer to the question of why - Violence as with human behaviour is typically related to other elements that sway us in one direction or another (punch or walk away) - No predictor on their own can predict violence - Many people will not resort to violence even if they lived and grew up in violent settings and someone in the same environment will resort to violence - Influences can be conscious or subconscious Sociological explanations - Focus on external environmental conditions Strain theory - Merton: poor people who need money tend to suffer high levels of strain because there is a block towards conventional goals (making money, big house) - Goals are widely distributed amongst society but means of achieving these goals are not Anomie: o person whose access to these goals are blocked may give up and choose other adaptations o these people may choose alternate routes (drug money) o these activities put the person at risk of violence - structural inequalities in society can lead to violence - relative deprivation – someone has something you want, you can’t get, you get mad Cultural adaptations - “code of the streets” – respect is important - Code is that if your disrespected you respond with violence Social learning theory - We learn from the people we associate with - Bully learns from reward of violence - People also learn through watching violence - More likely to use violence when they see violence and there is a positive reward - Sutherland: parents/peers use violence then they promote violence - Technique and motivations are learned through others - Gangs- pro-violence values - Media doesn’t cause violence but it teaches how to react to certain situations and thus helps to make a violent reaction - Self control and violence o General Theory of Crime : violence occurs because there is a lack of self control Attractions of violence - When women are violent people assume there is a psychological or biological problem with them, that they aren’t controlling it - This makes women look like the victim - Factors push someone to be violent BUT they choose to be violent - Biology, psychology, personal history, socialization, culture, are all causes Violent facilitators – not causes of violence, is an enabler - Guns, drugs, alcohol Consumption - Large amount of crime occurs when one consumes alcohol - Alcohol effects the central nervous system and acts as a suppressant or a stimulant - Bar – people see someone insult you – you fight him because there is an expectation to defend your honour and people approve - Social context facilitates or accepts violence then the likelihood of violence increases - Not all drugs make violence more likely Purchase - People commit crimes (steal) to feed their drug addiction Distribution - Drug dealers fight - Sell fake drugs - Drug debts - Guns – attribute
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