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[CYC 302] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 26 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Child and Youth Care
Course Code
CYC 302
Professor
Lisa Pena- Sabanal
Study Guide
Final

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Ryerson
CYC 302
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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CYC302 Healing Spaces Chapter One and Two: Week Two
Chapter One: An Introduction to the Therapeutic Milieu
* Therapeutic milieu has been important since the first child and youth care counsellor in 1801 (Jean
Itard), started with beginning of institutionalization of children in residential settings
* Concept of therapeutic environment born out of attempt to assist children not in a functional family
situation and required to live in residential setting; wanted to make setting more homelike aka
therapeutic
* Institutionalization: type of behavioral outcomes that result from children living in settings where all
decisions are made for them by rules and regulations of authority figured; showed disabilities
* Trishman focused on CYWs because they are in constant contact with children, focused on individual
needs of residents
* Therapeutic Milieu: special environment where CYWs interact in process of growth and change, initiates
an attempt to heal and recover
Five Environmental Elements
* All 5 are closely interrelated and dependent on each other
* Physical: concrete physical setting, certain aspects may bother a child or bring back past memories
* Emotional: temperament/emotional experiences/tactile/sensory experiences/emotional state, ability to
express emotions, level of acceptance within milieu
* Social: social interactions taking place within milieu, environment where CYW and child interact for
therapeutic benefit; ex. tense social environment could lead to a talk with the group of children where
they can figure out strategies and plans to stop fights from occurring
* Cultural: level of acceptance and celebration of differences, addresses cultures as well as
socioeconomic issues, sexual orientation, etc; need to address these issues as they arise with youth
* Ideological: body of ideas, beliefs and attitudes that are important to individuals, appreciation of right
and wrong, also includes principles of the agency, affects treatment decisions and techniques used
Maslow’s Hierarchy
* Starts with basics (food/water), then safety (physical/emotional), then love and belonging, then self
esteem, then self actualization (need to be best he/she can be)
* Needs fluctuate and regulate within environments; in therapeutic milieu, 2-4 are focused on as safety
(primary condition for success including physical, emotional and psychological), inclusion (belonging to
a peer group) and affirmation (physical, intellectual, social, emotional and spiritual; positive self esteem
leads to positive behavior which leads to affirmation from peers/family, highest level of gratification)
Environmental Elements and Needs
* Example: in high school grade 9s are scared of certain floor because it is gang related, by evaluating
environment you realize that safety needs aren’t being met and a plan needs to be made in order to
promote inclusion
Chapter Two: The Physical Milieu
* The physical milieu is concrete and therefore the easiest to influence and change
* Children’s environments divided into physical meta-environment (all various environments of child) and
the therapeutic physical milieu (environments in which student has direct control to produce change)
Therapeutic Physical Milieu
* The physical milieu is the concrete physical environment where the child and student interact, provides
opportunities for student to have a direct influence on children by influencing and changing aspects of
the milieu to make it more comfortable, safe and relaxing for the child
* A therapeutically safe environment reduces the element of physical harm while providing learning
opportunities for the child as well (ex. classroom provides opportunities for cognitive development only
when it is properly lit and cleaned)
* Must create a safe and inclusive milieu while also blocking off areas that would not be secure (ex.
closets, secluded hallways)
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* Must be aware of fire safety within milieu and relay this to children as well as toxic materials and unsafe
equipment (ex. nails sticking out of walls, debris on floors, cleaning supplies, sharp tools)
* Must have properly trained people in certain milieus (ex. lifeguards, first aid, trainers)
Creating and Maintaining a Safe Milieu
* Being aware of safety manuals and requirements, having fire drills and training sessions, ask questions
* Milieu should be physically comfortable (layout, soft comfortable furnishings, room to move, toys,
temperature, easy to clean floors), aesthetics (color of walls, light, wall hangings, smells), utility and
versatility (adaptable, positioning of furniture)
Creating and Maintaining an Inclusive Milieu
* Talk to children to get an idea of what they want and require in the environment, pay attention to how
you feel in the environment in different moods, etc
* Bright/calming/neutral colors to set different moods, wall hangings, plants, etc can be used as well as
natural light (not fluorescent lighting)
* Music and nature sounds to enhance experience
* Furniture to make environment more comfortable especially if they are small and aesthetically pleasing
(ex. beanbag chairs) and hard wood that can be easily cleaned
* Aromatherapy/candles/flowers used after discussing allergies/past experiences with smells
* Traffic flow due to positioning of furniture and boundaries adds a feeling of safety and belonging; must
be organized and have free space in between, find ways to maximize space (ex. shelving and
cupboards)
* Self esteem of child is most important and can be affected by the milieu, must convey message of
“you’re special,” conveyed by how child interacts within the milieu, child can add something personal to
the milieu (ex. art)
Creating and Maintaining an Affirming Milieu
* Children must feel an attachment to their environment, accomplished by involving children in
maintenance/creation of milieu in some way (ex. cleaning chart, group mural made by children), add a
personal touch (ex. have own pillow on ground or desk containing personal things)
Therapeutic Activities for the Physical Milieu
- Calling fire/health/police department to get relevant literature for children
- Get children to make posters highlighting a safety feature of the milieu
- Discuss a safety topic and then get children to do a skit acting it out
- Give children a blank sheet of paper and get them to assess the area around them for safety features
- Get children to explore the milieu and see if they can find a safety issue and how they can fix it
- Get personnel from departments to come in and talk
- Get children in groups to brainstorm different aspects that make them feel included and safe
- Get children to rearrange the room to make it more functional in a certain area
- Give children pieces of paper, swatches of fabric, etc and get them to design their ideal room
- Get children to design their own cushion that they can have to sit on
- Put children into groups and assign each group a week where they must draw pictures, write quotes or
comments and/or post pictures of what has occurred in the milieu in the past week
- Get a large piece of canvas and get every child to draw a small square reflecting themselves; put it up
somewhere in the class
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