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Midterm

Microeconomics Test (.doc

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Department
Economics
Course
ECN 104
Professor
Thomas Barbiero
Semester
Fall

Description
AP Microeconomics Multiple Choice: Choose the item that best answers each question. Each question is worth an equal amount. You have 90 minutes to complete this test. 1. In which of the following instances will total revenue decline? A) price rises and supply is elastic B) price falls and demand is elastic C) price rises and demand is inelastic D) price rises and demand is elastic 2. The diamond-water paradox occurs because: A) the price of a product is related to its total utility, not its marginal utility. B) the price of a product is related to its marginal utility, not its total utility. C) water is, in fact, very scarce in certain regions of the world. D) diamonds are more useful than water. 3. When a consumer is maximizing total utility: A) the average utility from each dollar spent is the same. B) total utility cannot be increased by reallocating expenditures among various products. C) the total utility obtainable from each product is at a maximum. D) the marginal utility of the last unit of each product purchased is zero. 4. The rationing function of prices refers to the: A) tendency of supply and demand to shift in opposite directions. B) fact that ration coupons are needed to alleviate wartime shortages of goods. C) capacity of a competitive market to equate the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied. D) ability of the market system to generate an equitable distribution of income. 5. If price is above the equilibrium level, competition among sellers to reduce the resulting: A) surplus will increase quantity demanded and decrease quantity supplied. B) shortage will decrease quantity demanded and increase quantity supplied. C) surplus will decrease quantity demanded and increase quantity supplied. D) shortage will increase quantity demanded and decrease quantity supplied. 6. An increase in demand will increase equilibrium price to a greater extent: A) if the product is a normal good. B) if the product is an inferior good. C) the less elastic the supply curve. D) the more elastic the supply curve. 7. Which of the following will cause the demand curve for product A to shift to the left? A) population growth that causes an expansion in the number of persons consuming A B) an increase in money income if A is a normal good C) a decrease in the price of complementary product C D) an increase in money income if A is an inferior good 8. Suppose you have a limited money income and you are purchasing products A and B whose prices happen to be the same. To maximize your utility you should purchase A and B in such amounts that: A) their marginal utilities are the same. B) their total utilities are the same. C) their marginal and total utilities are proportionate. D) the income and substitution effects associated with each are equal. 9. Which of the following statements is correct? A) If demand increases and supply decreases, equilibrium price will fall. B) If supply increases and demand decreases, equilibrium price will fall. C) If demand decreases and supply increases, equilibrium price will rise. D) If supply declines and demand remains constant, equilibrium price will fall. 10. If a firm's demand for labor is elastic, a union-negotiated wage increase will: A) necessarily be inflationary. B) cause the firm's total payroll to increase. C) cause the firm's total payroll to decline. D) cause a shortage of labor. 11. If producers must obtain higher prices than previously to produce various levels of output, the following has occurred: A) a decrease in demand. B) an increase in demand. C) a decrease in supply. D) an increase in supply. Use the following to answer questions 12-21: In the following question(s) you are asked to determine, other things equal, the effects of a given change in a determinant of demand or supply for product X upon (1) the demand (D) for, or supply (S) of, X, (2) the equilibrium price (P) of X and (3) the equilibrium quantity (Q) of X. 12. An increase in the price of a product that is a close substitute for X will: A) decrease D, increase P, and decrease Q. B) increase D, increase P, and decrease Q. C) increase D, increase P, and increase Q. D) increase D, decrease P, and increase Q. 13. An increase in income, if X is a normal good, will: A) increase D, increase P, and increase Q. B) increase D, increase P, and decrease Q. C) increase S, increase P, and increase Q. D) decrease D, increase P, and increase Q. 14. An increase in the tastes and preferences for X will: A) increase S, decrease P, and increase Q. B) decrease S, decrease P, and decrease Q. C) increase D, increase P, and increase Q. D) decrease D, decrease P, and decrease Q. 15. An improvement in the technology used to produce X will: A) decrease S, increase P, and decrease Q. B) decrease S, increase P, and increase Q. C) increase S, decrease P, and increase Q. D) decrease D, decrease P, and decrease Q. 16. A reduction in the number of firms producing X will: A) increase D, increase P, and increase Q. B) increase S, decrease P, and increase Q. C) decrease S, increase P, and decrease Q. D) decrease S, decrease P, and increase Q. 17. Consumer expectations that the price of X will rise sharply in the future will: A) increase S, increase P, and increase Q. B) increase D, increase P, and increase Q. C) decrease S, increase P, and increase Q. D) increase D, decrease P, and increase Q. 18. An increase in the prices of resources used to produce X will: A) increase S, increase P, and increase Q. B) increase D, increase P, and increase Q. C) decrease S, decrease P, and decrease Q. D) decrease S, increase P, and decrease Q. 19. An increase in the price of a product which is a complement to X will: A) decrease S, decrease P, and decrease Q. B) increase D, increase P, and increase Q. C) decrease D, decrease P, and decrease Q. D) increase D, increase P, and decrease Q. 20. A decrease in the number of consumers of product X will: A) decrease S, decrease P, and decrease Q. B) increase D, increase P, and increase Q. C) decrease D, decrease P, and decrease Q. D) decrease D, decrease P, and increase Q. 21. If X is an inferior good, a decrease in income will: A) decrease D, decrease P, and decrease Q. B) decrease D, decrease P, and increase Q. C) increase S, decrease P, and increase Q. D) increase D, increase P, and increase Q. 22. If the supply and demand curves for a product both decrease, then equilibrium: A) quantity must fall and equilibrium price must rise. B) price must fall, but equilibrium quantity may either rise, fall, or remain unchanged. C) quantity must decline, but equilibrium price may either rise, fall, or remain unchanged. D) quantity and equilibrium price must both decline. 23. When a consumer shifts purchases from product X to product Y the marginal utility of: A) X falls and the marginal utility of Y rises. B) X rises and the marginal utility of Y falls. C) both X and Y rises. D) both X and Y falls. 24. If the demand for farm products is price inelastic, a good harvest will cause farm revenues to: A) increase. B) decrease. C) be unchanged. D) either increase or decrease, depending on what happens to supply. 25. The larger the positive cross elasticity coefficient of demand between products X and Y, the: A) stronger their complementariness. B) greater their substitutability. C) smaller the price elasticity of demand for both products. D) the less sensitive purchases of each are to increases in income. 26. Which of the following will cause a decrease in market equilibrium price and an increase in equilibrium quantity? A) an increase in supply B) an increase in demand C) a decrease in supply D) a decrease in demand 27. When the price of a product increases, a consumer is able to buy less of it with a given money income. This describes: A) the cost effect. B) the inflationary effect. C) the income effect. D) the substitution effect. 28. Suppose Wilkes Pizzeria currently faces a linear demand curve and is charging a very high price per pizza and doing very little business. Andrew now decides to lower pizza prices by 5% per week for an indefinite period of time. We can expect that each successive week: A) demand will become more price elastic. B) price elasticity of demand will not change as price is lowered. C) demand will become less price elastic. D) the elasticity of supply will increase. 29. The elasticity of demand for a product is likely to be greater: A) if the product is a necessity, rather than a luxury good. B) the greater the amount of time over which buyers adjust to a price change. C) the smaller the proportion of one's income spent on the product. D) the smaller the number of substitute products available. 30. The Illinois Central Railroad once asked the Illinois Commerce Commission for permission to increase its commuter rates by 20%. The railroad argued that declining revenues made this rate increase essential. Opponents of the rate increase contended that the railroad's revenues would fall because of the rate hike. It can be concluded that: A) both groups felt that the demand was elastic but for different reasons. B) both groups felt that the demand was inelastic but for different reasons. C) the railroad felt that the demand for passenger service was inelastic and opponents of the rate increase felt it was elastic. D) the railroad felt that the demand for passenger service was elastic and opponents of the rate increase felt it was inelastic. 31. One can say with certainty that equilibrium quantity will increase when supply: A) and demand both decrease. B) increases and demand decreases. C) decreases and demand increases. D) and demand both increase. 32. To maximize utility a consumer should allocate money income so that the: A) elasticity of demand on all products purchased is the same. B) marginal utility obtained from the last dollar spent on each product is the same. C) total utility derived from each product consumed is the same. D) marginal utility of the last unit of each product consumed is the same. 33. In introducing the opportunity cost of time into the theory of consumer behavior we find that, all else equal: A) one should consume less of time-intensive goods. B) one should consume more of time-intensive goods. C) the consumer's equilibrium position is not altered. D) the marginal utility derived from each product must be multiplied by consumption time in determining equilibrium. 34. Assume the demand for a product is perfectly inelastic. If government establishes a price floor that is $2 above the equilibrium price, the resulting: A) shortage will be greater the more elastic the supply. B) shortage will be greater the less elastic the supply. C) surplus will be greater the more elastic the supply. D) surplus will be greater the less elastic the supply. 35. An increase in the price of a product will reduce the amount of it purchased because: A) supply curves are upsloping. B) the higher price means that real incomes have risen. C) consumers will substitute other products for the one whose price has risen. D) consumers substitute relatively high-priced for relatively low-priced products. 36. If the supply of product X is perfectly elastic, an increase in the demand for it will increase: A) equilibrium quantity but reduce equilibrium price. B) equilibrium quantity but equilibrium price will be unchanged. C) equilibrium price but reduce equilibrium quantity. D) equilibrium price but equilibrium quantity will be unchanged. 37. When the percentage change in price is greater than the resulting percentage change in quantity demanded: A) a decrease in price will increase total revenue. B) demand may be either elastic or inelastic. C) an increase in price will increase total revenue. D) demand is elastic. 38. An increase in the price of product A will: A) increase the marginal utility per dollar spent on A. B) decrease the marginal utility per dollar spent on A. C) not affect the marginal utility per dollar spent on A. D) cause utility-maximizing consumers to buy more of A. 39. Suppose the price of a product rises and the total revenue of sellers increases. A) It can be concluded that the demand for the product is elastic. B) It can be concluded that the supply of the product is elastic. C) It can be concluded that the supply of the product is inelastic. D) No conclusion can be reached with respect to the elasticity of supply. 40. If products C and D are close substitutes, an increase in the price of C will: A) tend to cause the price of D to fall. B) shift the demand curve of C to the left and the demand curve of D to the right. C) shift the demand curve of D to the right. D) shift the demand curves of both products to the right. 41. A consumer is maximizing her utility with a particular money income when: A) the total utility derived from each product consumed is the same. B) MU /P =aMU aP = MU /b =b... = MUc/Pc. n n C) MU = MU = MU = ... = MU . a b c n D) P = a = P b ... c P . n 42. Which of the following statements is correct? A) If marginal utility is diminishing, total utility must also be diminishing. B) There is no relationship between how rapidly marginal utility declines and the price elasticity of demand. C) If an individual's marginal utility from a product diminishes rapidly, her demand for this product is inelastic with respect to price. D) If an individual's marginal utility from a product diminishes rapidly, her demand for this product is elastic with respect to price. 43. At the current price there is a shortage of a product. We would expect price to: A) increase, quantity demanded to increase, and quantity supplied to decrease. B) increase, quantity demanded to decrease, and quantity supplied to increase. C) increase, quantity demanded to increase, and quantity supplied to increase. D) decrease, quantity demanded to increase, and quantity supplied to decrease. 44. One can say with certainty that equilibrium price will decline when supply: A) and demand both decrease. B) increases and demand decreases. C) decreases and demand increases. D) and demand both increase. 45. "In the corn market, demand often exceeds supply and supply sometimes exceeds demand. The price of corn rises and falls in response to changes in supply and demand." In which of these two statements are the terms "demand" and "supply" being used correctly? A) in neither s
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