1: Air/water presence of life is called _____________
2.biological and chemical processes necessary for species, communities and ecosystems to
survives is ___________ diversity.
3: _________ biome is found in america and europe . it is treeless , low vegetaion mosty consist
of ______ ,_______________and _________
4. Temprature inArtic Tundra is _____ in winters and ______ in summers.
5:Artic tundra is treeless , has permaforst soil and precipation is less than ___________
6 : Coniferous forest are found in ________________ hemisphere.
7 __________________ is also known as everygreen coniforous forest . They have long cold
winters and short summers. Located south of arctic tundra.
8: Taiga has discontinous ____________ and glasciated soi ( thin layer)
9: .________________ is on higher altitude , they have no permafrost and precipation is higher.
10: ______________ have dense , sturdy tree and closed canopies.
11 :_________ are characterized by long periods of drought , rainfal comes in forms of thunder
storms. They are found in arid or semi arid areas ( 25 - 75 mm of precipations
12 :___________ trees shed leaves in autumn.
13 : _____ is the important aboitic factor in taiga. Tempratures in winter are recorded as low as
_____ and 30 c in summers.
14: ______________ is the name used to describe north american grasslands.
15 Non grass species are called ______________ such as wildflowers.
16: In NorthAmerica the prairies are dominated by two types of grass _______ and bunch.
17:In NorthAmerica _____________ biome is characterized by a high species diversity – e.g.
maple-basswood, oak-pine, beech-maple .
18 : Grassands have great diversity , moonsoons in _________- , asia is characterized by arid
grasslands and north amercia by _________ species.
19 : __________________ is similar to taiga, with spruce, jack pine and Eastern white pine
being the dominant species
20: ____________________ is the dominant tree species in taiga.
21 : ___________is located at higher elevations but the structure is simiar to boreal forest.
22: Coastal coniferous forest have mider tempratures and more ________ than boreal and
montane conifer forest. They are dominated by ____________ species. ________ is only found in oregon and california.
23:climate not vegatation is the key characteristics of __________. There evaporation exceeds
precipations. Tropical , temperate and cold temperatures.
24: Monjave , sonoran , chihuahaun and great basin are the four types of deserts. _______ has
cooler temperatures , high elevation and winter snow.
25:Chapparel has ___________-- climiate with winter rain and summer drought. It is dominated
26 : __________biomes are replaced by crops and pastures.
27 : _____________ is characterized by physcial structure, It has temperate and tropical forest.
28 : __________interlocking branches that limits light penetration to the forest floor
29 : species that can complete reproduction during Spring or can photosynthesize at very low
light intensity ___________
30: shrubs are ________ and woody shrubs.
31:Smaller tree species and saplings – must be able to photosynthesize at low light intensity are
32 : Forests that grows in the equator are called _________.
33: tropical rainforests have _____ temperatures and 10 to 50 cm of rainfall every month.
34:____________ formed through glacial activity, earthquakes and changing the course of rivers
35: __________systems contains water that does not flow. They contain a large proportion of
____________ but only a small proportion of global water
36: ______________where the rate of photosynthesis is balanced with the rate of respiration of
plants and animals. It occurs when the light intensity has been reduced to _% of surface
37 : ___________layer the light intensity is insufficient to allow photosynthesis.
38 : profundal zone is knowns as __________ ( hetrotrphic only) zone and __________ is the
39 :________-- top layer with relatively high temperatures lower density. oxygen concentrarion is
40 : _______ is the zone on the shorline where the rooted and floating plants can survice.
41: Lotic systems consist of flowing _______ and rivers. water volume is determined by rainfall ,
storms and downstream resistance.
42: oxygen levels tend to be higher in __________ because of the mixing and churning of the
water and because of a greater surface-to-volume ratio 43 : Temperature in lotic systems are affected by _____ and current amount of shading.
44: _______________ biomes interface between terrestrial biomes and freshwater environments
45 : __________-lower layer with lower temperature and higher density and lower oxygen
46 : Most of the energy flow in lotic systems comes from external sources – litter and detritus
washed downstream in _________system.
47: Wetlands are crucial for feeding sites , ____________ and over wintering. It is flooded with
48: In wetlands the water table is near the surface less than _________metres.
50 : __________ the layer where light intensity is sufficient to allow photosynthesis.
51: Oxygen concentrations are high in the _________ due to gaseous exchange and
52 : Oxygen concentration are low in the __________ due to hetrotrophic respiration , animas
and organisms feeding on dead material.
53: Marches contains species that float such as _____________.
54: Swamps are simiar to marches but they are dominated by ______ and trees.
55 :Azone occupied by plankton and is to deep for rooted plants ________
60 : _____________zone deeper than the littoral zone, but above the compensation point.
61:__________ contain soft stemmed hebacus plants which are rooted below the water surface
but proture above the water.
62: ___________ have no outlet for water and they are glaciated regions between nothern US and
63:_________ contain Typical species are Sphagnum moss, cottongrass, sundews,
pitcher plants and poison oak
64 : _________have zones similar to freshwater lentic systems.Such as depth increases in
65: Zone above the continenta sheft is called ____________
66: ___________ zone of theopen ocean has great biodiversity from phankton to vertebrates. It
also includes biolumicient organisms. 67: The species in ____________ are complex giant tube warm and symbiotic chemoautotroph
which oxidise sulfide to produce _________.
68: The volcanic vents discharging warm water ( 3-23 c) contains ____________ , _______ and
69: The volcanic vents discharging hot water ( 270-280c) contains _____________- and some
70 :____________ is originally considered as less biologically important than
shallow water and photic zones
71: ________ are a characteristic feature of intertida zone , which is trapping
organisms who must withstand air and heat .
72:___________ have very little plant diversity , tidal influx deposit slit and mud.
73 : _____________filter out terrestrial pollutants before they oceans.
74: Partially enclosed bodies of water that are directly connected to the ocean are called
_____________. Aplace sea water is diluted with fresh water
75: : ___________ are rocky shore and they are subject to tidal fluctation. Factors affecting the
types of organism in this zone include the steepness of the ______, the intensity of the_______
and the effect of varying salinity
76: Estuaries are in________- flux. Salt marches are important part of them.
77: _________ composed of skelton of coras both dead and live. They are confined to shallow
and tropical water.
78 : Mangrooves are the tropical analogy of _________.
79: Coral reefs have high levels of ______________. leading to high primary and secondary
80: Coral reefs consist of three types atolls ,_________- and fringging.
Session 7 : External factors
Enery is replenished by solar radiation through ________ only at producer level and itsnot cyclic
-Materia change forms but are not lost from global scae T/F
-The reservoir for material are called _______ and________.Atmphosphere , primary producer ,
rock and soil are examples for reservoirs.
- The rate of transfer between the reservoirs is called ________-
- The nutricent cyce of material and elements is also known as _________________ -The global cycles of nutrient cycles ate volatile cycles such as _______and __________.
phophorus and sulfer are part of ___________ cyles.
- carbon is found in ___________. which is a abiotic factor.
- Co2 is converted into glucose through ____________ by the producers in water.
-carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere and water through __________
- Carbon is stored in fossil fuels for long periods. Burning of fossil fuelts unlocks the carbon
which leads to increase in atmospheric CO2 causing ____________
- ____________ is the major sink for carbon.
-Atmosphere is the largest sink for nitrogen . Nitrogen is found about ___ %.
-Primary producers obtain nitrogen from _____________and from soil through the action of
-Consumers obtain nitrogen from _____________.
- ____________carry out three crucial roles in the nitrogen cycles.
-Nitrogen fixation is converting N t2 _______-
-Nitrification is converting NH t3 nitrite and _______ by nitrifying bacteria
-Denitrification is converting nitrate to______
-__________ is conversion of detritus into NH and3NH 4
-_____________ is a process where nitrogen is converted into NH3 in the absense of oxygen
using an enzyem called _________.
-________________-nitrogen fixing bacterium that exists in symbiosis with legumes
only fixes nitrogen when its infects the roots of the plants.
- Nitomonas converts ammonia into nitrite ( toxic to plants) and _________ converts nitrite to
nitrate. ____________ bacteria does both.
-___________ is a prcoess where nitrogen is released back into the atmosphere from nitrate in the
-Bacteria such as Pseudomonas denitrificans will breakdown nitrate and carbohydrate to release
__________ , nitrogen and water.
-Ammonification is a process where producers and consumers decompose. Convert the detrius
into ammonia in the soil.
-ammonia is converted by bacteria into nitrate which is then denitrified by bacteria into nitrogen
released into the atmosphere
- Phosphours is a biologically active living form of _______. This molecule is used in nucleic
acids and atp.
-The major pool for phosphours is ______ and soil. They do not include atmosphere it can be a
limting nutrient in primary production
-Phosphorous enters the cyles by weathering and _________ of phophate containing rocks. enters
the soil abosorbed by roots of plants
-The other cycle of phosphrous is when the run off to oceans where its is cycles between _________ plants and animals.Phosphours not used by marine organisms can settles in sediments
and become __________.
-_________ is a component of protients and amino acids.
____________ is a biologicaly avaiabe ion used in the cycle.
-The major water pool is oceans , 97% of water
-75% of fresh water on ice. 1% is ground water
-Water evaporate from oceans , land and soil and the water vapur falls as rain /snow on land
excess water is drained into oceans and rivers.
The Trace Elements
-Sodium , calcium , chloride , magensium
The Sulfer Cycle
Hydrogen sulfide (H S2 enters the atmosphere through
volcanic eruptions and biological activity
H S is oxidized to sulfur dioxide (SO )which then enters soil and water
SO 2n soil and water sulfur dioxide is oxidized to sulfate (SO 4
Sulfate is rapidly passed along the food chain through
decomposition and uptake – the so-called “inner cycle”
If iron is present in these sediments the sulfur will combine
with this to form iron sulfides – very insoluble and likely to
remain in the sediment for prolonged periods
This iron sulfide is often found in fossil fuels – released in two ways
Through the action of the Thiobacillus bacterium to form sulfites and sulfates – can produce
sulfuric acid in aqueous conditions
Through combustion – producing sulfur dioxide that again can be converted to sulfuric acid
Nitrae and Methemoglobmenia
1: Oxygen is carried by _______________ of hemoglobin in erythrocyles
2:_____________ is formed when oxygen binds to iron in its reduced states ( 2+ ferrous )
3: Chemical oxidation with the loss of an electron leading to the trivalent cationic form (3+-
ferric) called _____________________
4:_______________- results in normal blood but low oxygen.
5:Nitrate is converted into nitire by bacteria , nitrite i