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ENH 617 Self Test.doc

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Ryerson University
Environmental Health
ENH 617
Marcia Maguire

BIOMES 1: Air/water presence of life is called _____________ 2.biological and chemical processes necessary for species, communities and ecosystems to survives is ___________ diversity. 3: _________ biome is found in america and europe . it is treeless , low vegetaion mosty consist of ______ ,_______________and _________ 4. Temprature inArtic Tundra is _____ in winters and ______ in summers. 5:Artic tundra is treeless , has permaforst soil and precipation is less than ___________ 6 : Coniferous forest are found in ________________ hemisphere. 7 __________________ is also known as everygreen coniforous forest . They have long cold winters and short summers. Located south of arctic tundra. 8: Taiga has discontinous ____________ and glasciated soi ( thin layer) 9: .________________ is on higher altitude , they have no permafrost and precipation is higher. 10: ______________ have dense , sturdy tree and closed canopies. 11 :_________ are characterized by long periods of drought , rainfal comes in forms of thunder storms. They are found in arid or semi arid areas ( 25 - 75 mm of precipations 12 :___________ trees shed leaves in autumn. 13 : _____ is the important aboitic factor in taiga. Tempratures in winter are recorded as low as _____ and 30 c in summers. 14: ______________ is the name used to describe north american grasslands. 15 Non grass species are called ______________ such as wildflowers. 16: In NorthAmerica the prairies are dominated by two types of grass _______ and bunch. 17:In NorthAmerica _____________ biome is characterized by a high species diversity – e.g. maple-basswood, oak-pine, beech-maple . 18 : Grassands have great diversity , moonsoons in _________- , asia is characterized by arid grasslands and north amercia by _________ species. 19 : __________________ is similar to taiga, with spruce, jack pine and Eastern white pine being the dominant species 20: ____________________ is the dominant tree species in taiga. 21 : ___________is located at higher elevations but the structure is simiar to boreal forest. 22: Coastal coniferous forest have mider tempratures and more ________ than boreal and montane conifer forest. They are dominated by ____________ species. ________ is only found in oregon and california. 23:climate not vegatation is the key characteristics of __________. There evaporation exceeds precipations. Tropical , temperate and cold temperatures. 24: Monjave , sonoran , chihuahaun and great basin are the four types of deserts. _______ has cooler temperatures , high elevation and winter snow. 25:Chapparel has ___________-- climiate with winter rain and summer drought. It is dominated by ________ 26 : __________biomes are replaced by crops and pastures. 27 : _____________ is characterized by physcial structure, It has temperate and tropical forest. 28 : __________interlocking branches that limits light penetration to the forest floor 29 : species that can complete reproduction during Spring or can photosynthesize at very low light intensity ___________ 30: shrubs are ________ and woody shrubs. 31:Smaller tree species and saplings – must be able to photosynthesize at low light intensity are called ______-. 32 : Forests that grows in the equator are called _________. 33: tropical rainforests have _____ temperatures and 10 to 50 cm of rainfall every month. 34:____________ formed through glacial activity, earthquakes and changing the course of rivers 35: __________systems contains water that does not flow. They contain a large proportion of ____________ but only a small proportion of global water 36: ______________where the rate of photosynthesis is balanced with the rate of respiration of plants and animals. It occurs when the light intensity has been reduced to _% of surface intensity. 37 : ___________layer the light intensity is insufficient to allow photosynthesis. 38 : profundal zone is knowns as __________ ( hetrotrphic only) zone and __________ is the bottom zone. 39 :________-- top layer with relatively high temperatures lower density. oxygen concentrarion is higher, 40 : _______ is the zone on the shorline where the rooted and floating plants can survice. 41: Lotic systems consist of flowing _______ and rivers. water volume is determined by rainfall , storms and downstream resistance. 42: oxygen levels tend to be higher in __________ because of the mixing and churning of the water and because of a greater surface-to-volume ratio 43 : Temperature in lotic systems are affected by _____ and current amount of shading. 44: _______________ biomes interface between terrestrial biomes and freshwater environments 45 : __________-lower layer with lower temperature and higher density and lower oxygen concentration. 46 : Most of the energy flow in lotic systems comes from external sources – litter and detritus washed downstream in _________system. 47: Wetlands are crucial for feeding sites , ____________ and over wintering. It is flooded with shalow water. 48: In wetlands the water table is near the surface less than _________metres. 50 : __________ the layer where light intensity is sufficient to allow photosynthesis. 51: Oxygen concentrations are high in the _________ due to gaseous exchange and photosynthesis 52 : Oxygen concentration are low in the __________ due to hetrotrophic respiration , animas and organisms feeding on dead material. 53: Marches contains species that float such as _____________. 54: Swamps are simiar to marches but they are dominated by ______ and trees. 55 :Azone occupied by plankton and is to deep for rooted plants ________ 60 : _____________zone deeper than the littoral zone, but above the compensation point. 61:__________ contain soft stemmed hebacus plants which are rooted below the water surface but proture above the water. 62: ___________ have no outlet for water and they are glaciated regions between nothern US and Canada. 63:_________ contain Typical species are Sphagnum moss, cottongrass, sundews, pitcher plants and poison oak 64 : _________have zones similar to freshwater lentic systems.Such as depth increases in __________ zone. 65: Zone above the continenta sheft is called ____________ 66: ___________ zone of theopen ocean has great biodiversity from phankton to vertebrates. It also includes biolumicient organisms. 67: The species in ____________ are complex giant tube warm and symbiotic chemoautotroph which oxidise sulfide to produce _________. 68: The volcanic vents discharging warm water ( 3-23 c) contains ____________ , _______ and nitrate. 69: The volcanic vents discharging hot water ( 270-280c) contains _____________- and some dissolved _________. 70 :____________ is originally considered as less biologically important than shallow water and photic zones 71: ________ are a characteristic feature of intertida zone , which is trapping organisms who must withstand air and heat . 72:___________ have very little plant diversity , tidal influx deposit slit and mud. 73 : _____________filter out terrestrial pollutants before they oceans. 74: Partially enclosed bodies of water that are directly connected to the ocean are called _____________. Aplace sea water is diluted with fresh water 75: : ___________ are rocky shore and they are subject to tidal fluctation. Factors affecting the types of organism in this zone include the steepness of the ______, the intensity of the_______ and the effect of varying salinity 76: Estuaries are in________- flux. Salt marches are important part of them. 77: _________ composed of skelton of coras both dead and live. They are confined to shallow and tropical water. 78 : Mangrooves are the tropical analogy of _________. 79: Coral reefs have high levels of ______________. leading to high primary and secondary consumption 80: Coral reefs consist of three types atolls ,_________- and fringging. Session 7 : External factors Enery is replenished by solar radiation through ________ only at producer level and itsnot cyclic -Materia change forms but are not lost from global scae T/F -The reservoir for material are called _______ and________.Atmphosphere , primary producer , rock and soil are examples for reservoirs. - The rate of transfer between the reservoirs is called ________- - The nutricent cyce of material and elements is also known as _________________ -The global cycles of nutrient cycles ate volatile cycles such as _______and __________. phophorus and sulfer are part of ___________ cyles. - carbon is found in ___________. which is a abiotic factor. - Co2 is converted into glucose through ____________ by the producers in water. -carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere and water through __________ - Carbon is stored in fossil fuels for long periods. Burning of fossil fuelts unlocks the carbon which leads to increase in atmospheric CO2 causing ____________ - ____________ is the major sink for carbon. -Atmosphere is the largest sink for nitrogen . Nitrogen is found about ___ %. -Primary producers obtain nitrogen from _____________and from soil through the action of lighting. -Consumers obtain nitrogen from _____________. - ____________carry out three crucial roles in the nitrogen cycles. -Nitrogen fixation is converting N t2 _______- -Nitrification is converting NH t3 nitrite and _______ by nitrifying bacteria -Denitrification is converting nitrate to______ -__________ is conversion of detritus into NH and3NH 4 -_____________ is a process where nitrogen is converted into NH3 in the absense of oxygen using an enzyem called _________. -________________-nitrogen fixing bacterium that exists in symbiosis with legumes only fixes nitrogen when its infects the roots of the plants. - Nitomonas converts ammonia into nitrite ( toxic to plants) and _________ converts nitrite to nitrate. ____________ bacteria does both. -___________ is a prcoess where nitrogen is released back into the atmosphere from nitrate in the soil. -Bacteria such as Pseudomonas denitrificans will breakdown nitrate and carbohydrate to release __________ , nitrogen and water. -Ammonification is a process where producers and consumers decompose. Convert the detrius into ammonia in the soil. -ammonia is converted by bacteria into nitrate which is then denitrified by bacteria into nitrogen released into the atmosphere - Phosphours is a biologically active living form of _______. This molecule is used in nucleic acids and atp. -The major pool for phosphours is ______ and soil. They do not include atmosphere it can be a limting nutrient in primary production -Phosphorous enters the cyles by weathering and _________ of phophate containing rocks. enters the soil abosorbed by roots of plants -The other cycle of phosphrous is when the run off to oceans where its is cycles between _________ plants and animals.Phosphours not used by marine organisms can settles in sediments and become __________. -_________ is a component of protients and amino acids. ____________ is a biologicaly avaiabe ion used in the cycle. Water Cycle -The major water pool is oceans , 97% of water -75% of fresh water on ice. 1% is ground water -Water evaporate from oceans , land and soil and the water vapur falls as rain /snow on land excess water is drained into oceans and rivers. The Trace Elements -Sodium , calcium , chloride , magensium The Sulfer Cycle Hydrogen sulfide (H S2 enters the atmosphere through volcanic eruptions and biological activity H S is oxidized to sulfur dioxide (SO )which then enters soil and water 2 2 SO 2n soil and water sulfur dioxide is oxidized to sulfate (SO 4 Sulfate is rapidly passed along the food chain through decomposition and uptake – the so-called “inner cycle” If iron is present in these sediments the sulfur will combine with this to form iron sulfides – very insoluble and likely to remain in the sediment for prolonged periods This iron sulfide is often found in fossil fuels – released in two ways Through the action of the Thiobacillus bacterium to form sulfites and sulfates – can produce sulfuric acid in aqueous conditions Through combustion – producing sulfur dioxide that again can be converted to sulfuric acid Nitrae and Methemoglobmenia 1: Oxygen is carried by _______________ of hemoglobin in erythrocyles 2:_____________ is formed when oxygen binds to iron in its reduced states ( 2+ ferrous ) 3: Chemical oxidation with the loss of an electron leading to the trivalent cationic form (3+- ferric) called _____________________ 4:_______________- results in normal blood but low oxygen. 5:Nitrate is converted into nitire by bacteria , nitrite i
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