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Ryerson University
FSN 132
Julia Scalzo

11/02/12 Romanesque Architecture Pilgrimage Road Churches • who is being addressed with this architecture? • Amiens 1220 - 1269(11.26) and Reims (11.32) • there are hundreds of sculptures • Amiens • builders became “arch mad” • was built on the site of a church that had burned down • plan is more unified due to the basis of a gothic structure • now used for structure and decoration • all of the ribs converge, and continue ti the ground through a design in the wall • revolution, not a rejection of the romanesque • asymmetrical visage • Reims • designs are developed rapidly • very similar to the cathedral of Amiens, much more symmetrical and the arches are used or dealt with more carefully • arches are more stretched out • they follow a similar pattern and have very similar details (Amiens) • focal point of the church is different from that of Amiens • more glass is used in the construction of this building • high gothic: everything is expressed in the form of gothic, and everything gothic is worked into the building • interiors are still very similar • interior designs become progressively elongated buttresses are worked in and hidden in with the design in the architecture • • window space dramatically increased as result in buttressing system • portals built outward rather than recessed into facade • Parthenon 438 B.C. (adams 5.47 & 5.55) temple celebrate Athena (patron goddess of Athens) • • completed in 432 B.C. • celebrates her aspect as a virgin goddess • Parthenon > “parthenos” meaning virgin • stands within a continuum of Doric temples expresses classical balance, proportion and unity • • Basilica of Constantine 306-312 (7.50) • there are no free standing sculptures • christians could have flat images in order to tell the truths • see the images as a picture of christ • “T” Sacramentary of Saint-Sauveur de figeau • 780 - 850 (9.27, 9.28, 9.31) used images to get across the rules and laws • • played a significant role in bringing back the learning and culture of Roman antiquity • used them as a form of education to teach the public • moved to the reformation of the bible • stylized drapery depicted as black lines overall pattern in the piece flatten it • • figures are connected by geometric designs rather than landscapes 11/02/12 • artist departs from more classical drapery • started to corrupt the bible, after the multiple copies made • had some form of naturalistic representations within them • foreshortening and modeling with lighting and shape • more of a geometric pattern in the drapery and stylization • (9.31) • includes scenes from last judgment • shows suffering of earthly life Romanesque art in general: 1000 - mid 12th century Terms: • relics/reliquary: a casket or container for sacred relics. • tympanum: a lunette over the doorway of a church, often decorated with sculpture • Lunette: a semicircular area formed by the intersection of a wall and a vault. Or a painting, relief sculpture, or window of the same shape. • trumeau: in Romanesque and Gothic architecture, the central post supporting the lintel in a double doorway. • jamb sculptures: the upright surfaces forming the sides of a doorway or window, often decorated with sculptures in Romanesque and Gothic churches. • tapestry/ embroidery: is a form of textile are, traditionally woven on a vertical loom. • book of hours: a prayer book, intended fir lay use, containing the devotions, or acts of worship, for the hours of the Roman Catholic church. • Reliquary Statue of St. Foy, late 10th-11th centuries (10.4) made out of elaborate styled gold and jewels • • single most important attraction for pilgrims to this church • spiritually valuable turned into materially valuable • head believed to be formed around the saints skull Stavelot triptych 1156-1158 (10.1 & .2) • • trip - 3 (triptych) • a three part painting • referred to as the true cross • earliest known reliquary illustrating scenes from medieval legend from medieval times mostly in medieval art • • framed by corinthian columns supporting round arches • six scenes on the wings are divided into three constantine scenes (left) and Helena scenes (right) • shows constantine’s conversion to christianity composed of enamel gold with gems • • all painted - line is very important in the compositions • includes images that have to with the true cross • constantine dreamt he saw a cross in the sky • if you fight under the sign of the cross you will win learned he should allow christians to practice their fate • 11/02/12 • christian stories (textbook pp.259 - 260) • annunciation • Mary informed by angel Gabriel that she will give birth to Jesus • visitation • crucifixion • condemned to die by crucifixion • last judgement (pp. 360-363) • Principal monuments • sainte Foy (10.3 - .11) • the earliest surviving example of a pilgrimage chruch • has crossed towers • revived roman arches and construction • like roman > romanesque • an arch wants to split, putting another arch beside it helps to take some of the resistance or pressure off • dedicated to a third century virgin martyr known in english as saint faith • martyred as a child, because she would not worship pagan gods • St.Pierre (10.17) • relief, lengthened from waist down • created unexpected shift in proportion • drapery does not flow in relation to the body • resembles a wooden puppet • Abbot Durand, St Pierre, Moissac (10.18) flat dimension • • 2d line is very characteristic • fits into the arch through the shapes of his composition • tightly enclosed by the arch • perfectly unified with his frame (his halo) head sinks into shoulders • • feet make no pretense of actually supporting him • Initial “L” and St. Matthew, MS from the region of Agen Moissac (10.24) flattened treatment of space similar to sculptures • • resembles relief of Abbot Durand • relative symmetry and setting • feet are flat and contained in a semi-circle (echoes his halo) • L - intertwined human, animal and floral forms typical Romanesque manuscript motifs • • interlacing forms reminiscent of Viking and Anglo-Saxon metal work •
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