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11_09_12 upgraded.pdf

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Ryerson University
FSN 132
Joanne Mc Neish

11/09/12 Italian and Medieval Architecture & 14th Century Art • Philip I of France 1250 (11.36) and Life of Saint Denis 1317 (11.37) • left • is more stylized • building and figures are simplified to simple geometric forms • reduced to simple style of forms • no situation or place to look at • frame of the king has the most elaborate architectural element • greater verticality and higher placement consistent with position as ruler • right • figures have many varying style of actions • bottom representing an attempt of giving a location • more realistic • more of an organic quality with the lines • greater degree of naturalism • elaborate frame shows late gothic • vines metaphor for the church • commissioned during the reign of Phillip IV (the fair) • is of Saint Denis asking two others to write his bibliography • similarities • skewed perspective for the people and the buildings • both have towers that extend above the frames • towers remind us of a cathedral • decorative borders participate in the gothic style of architecture • both have 2 dimensional figures • figures have some variations in the posture Notre Dame • • has a significant rose window • flying buttresses • clear story stain glass windows • visage/western towers spire (vertical form) • • see a lot of vertical forms with everything pointing up • Ste. Foy, Cinques 1050 and St. Denis 1144 • radiating chapels chapels placed around the ambulatory (and sometimes the transepts) of a • medieval church • Ambulatory • a vaulted passageway, usually surrounding the apse or choir of a church • Transept a cross arm in a christian church, placed at right angles to the nave • • Choir • part of a christian church, near the altar, set aside for those chanting the services; usually part of the chancel • Vaulting a roof or ceiling masonry constructed on the arch principle. • • (can be used for both gothic and romanesque chapels) 11/09/12 • Saint-Etienne 1067 (10.39) and Reims 1211 (11.32) • have the same style of balance • buttresses for the left are more for decoration than support like the right • pointed tower left, squared off tower on the right • symmetry is very similar • Saint-Etienne • gothic overlapped building in the romanesque style • begun in 1067 • used to impose Norman architecture in England and Northern France • first european cathedral with rib vaults and pointed arches • Reims • designs are developed rapidly • high gothic: everything is expressed in the form of gothic, and everything gothic is worked into the building • interior designs become progressively elongated • buttresses are worked in and hidden in with the design in the architecture • window space dramatically increased as result in buttressing system • portals built outward rather than recessed into facade • Ste. Chapelle, Paris 1243-1248 (11.38) • does not have any towers and isles due to the fact that it is such a small building • commissioned by King Louis IX • walls literally become glass, as the stone supports diminish • no transept • scenes represented in the stain glass windows are of Old and New Testaments • ceiling vaults painted blue and decorated with gold stars in the forms of fleurs-de-lis • no need for flying buttresses, because there are no isles • roman architecture is everywhere in Europe Italian Romanesque and Gothic Architecture • understand that a lot of the churches previously studied still exist today • Pisa Baptistery, Cathedral Campanile 1063-1272 (10.30-.33) • typical to have the Baptistery as a separate building appearance derived from the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem • • exterior made of white marble • centrally planned church (italian tradition) • tend to keep it as a round building • pointed spikes along the roof remind us of a french cathedral rounded arches • 11/09/12 • Leaning tower of pisa • done by accident • 6 stories of arcaded galleries • campanile ( bell tower) • many characteristics of italian churches • influenced by Byzantine tradition ( contrast to Romanesque churches) • arches contribute to the sense of unity • the foundation soil is much weaker on one side than the other (soft foundation) • started to balance out the weight by making one side of the taller • the tower was slowly slipping every decade • has stayed up for over 1000 years even though it was tilted • a beautiful building, even though it is crooked • formed by green and white marble • Pisa Cathedral, 1053-1272 (10.31) • have a flat roof • mosaics are in Byzantine style • interior arch at the end of the nave • double sided aisles • flat wooden roof • arcades separating the aisles from the naves • includes a slightly rounded arch inside • still have clear story windows • S. Miniato al Monte, Florence, 1062-1090 • looks like a classical temple • classical architecture is roman, because they did not know about the greeks till later on • venire (does not represent anything of significance on the building) • French vs. Italian cathedrals french elongated rectangle • • italian, wide rectangle • Siena Cathedral 1284 (11.53) • rounded window right in the centre designed by Giovanni Pisano • • retained dark marble stripes of Italian Romanesque • like S. Miniato • centre is taller than the sides • more a vertical representation than usual italian architecture emphasis on the middle main door • • simple geometric form • complex and more decorative • does not have substantial towers • Milan Cathedral begun 1386 (11.50) • completed during the high renaissance • largest Italian Gothic Cathedral • combining massive size with delicate surface patterns traceries, multiple windows, and thin vertical spires • • multiple complicated buttresses 11/09/12 • long horizontal building • like to use lots of gothic style • Florence Cathedral, begun 1296 Campanile by Giotto (13.4 and .5) • made the tallest dome in the world • dome constructed by Brunelleschi • not sure at first how to place the dome in the cathedral • finished the dome during the renaissance • learned from example of the Parthenon (hemispherical dome) • Florence Parazzo Vecchio, 1298 and Siena, 1298 • two type of city halls • no central government so city halls are extremely important • very straight geometric structures • Venice, Doge’s Palace, 1420 (11.57) • palace on the Piazza San Marco • built in the lagoon for safety • Doge: mayor of the city (senator) • another form of city hall • interesting surface pattern in the front • first two stories consist of a lower portico • create a striking pattern of light and dark formed by the slightly pointed arches • Venice, Ca’D’Ore 1421 (NIT) • an example of private architecture • greater prosperity with commerce Italian painting and sculpture of the 14th century: Precursors to the Renaissance gradual development of naturalism • Pisano: Pulpit, Pisa Baptistery 1259 (12.1) • Pisano: Nativity, Pulpit, Pisa 1259 (12.2) • roman heritage in Italian medieval art represents Joseph and two mid-wives washing infant jesus • • largest figure showed in the tomb is Mary • imperial roman reliefs • made mainly made of marble • wearing roman togas figures at the bottom are closer than virgin Mary • • Mary is quite large therefore she is one of the more important figures • certain amount of direct influence on the form • identify the organic, three-dimensional movements of figures in space • a combination of columns with corinthian capitals and trilobed 11/09/12 arches • rounded arches of the roman and romanesque styles • column rests on lion represents typological parallels between old and new testaments • lions refer to Solomon’s throne Florence: Cimabue, Giotto Siena: Duccio, Lorenzetti, Martini (international gothic style) • Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned 1280 (12.3) • thought to be the last great painter working in the Byzantine tradition • golden background with the suggestion of a mother • angels framing her •
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