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fundamentals study notes.doc

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FSN 221
Anna Romanovska

fundamentals study notes what is color? - three requirements to see color : an object, a light source, and an observer - Spectometer is a device that measures reflected or transmitted light - colorimeter is a device for measuring shade, tint, value, brightness and purity of a color - colorimetry = the measure or analysis of color via a colorimeter Source of colors and their fixed natural order - wavelengths of color expressed in nanometers - going up in the rainbow by increments of 50 from 400-700 - 400 violet (short wavelengths, high frequency) to 700 red (long wavelengths, low frequency) albert munsell - munsell system of color notation, published in 1915 - identifies color characteristics oh hue, value, and chroma - munsells primary colors = red, blue, green, yellow, purple - secondary colors = yellow red, green yellow, blue green, purple blue, red purple Wilhelm Ostwald - 4 primaries = yellow, blue, red, green - 4secondaries = orange, blue purple, yellow green, orange CIE - international commission of illumination - used for measuring and ordering object color NCS - elementary colors = white-black, green-red, yellow-blue - provides precise notation for specification and documentation of color Pantone - international referencing system for selecting, specifying, matching, and controlling ink colors additive color mixtures - colored beams of light - red, blue, green - mixing all three = white - mixing two of the three makes secondaries - yellow, magenta, cyan subtractive color mixtures - red, yellow, and blue primary - mixed make black color nomenclature Hue, value & Chroma - Munsell system - 10 major hues, positioned 10 hue steps apart in a scale of 100 hues - 10 major hue names - red, yellow red, yellow, green yellow, green, blue green, blue, purple blue, purple, and red purple - value notation indicates the degree of lightness or darkness on a scale of black (0) to white (10) - Chroma is the purity, strength, or weakness of a color indicated by a degree of saturation when measured against neutral grey - Note* colors change in different lighting - Metamerism is the relationship between samples that change with changing light sources Munsell Notation - Value symbol (V) on a scale of black (0) to white (10) - Chroma symbol (C) on a scale of neutral grey /0 to /12, /14, /16 (or possibly higher?) - Hue Symbol (H) expressed as seen on wheel (red = 5R) (blue= 65B) - notation for a color is expressed as H V/C - ex. Vermillion = 5R 5/14 color temperature - warm colors advance and expand, appearing lighter and larger than cool hues - cool colors recede Earth colors - raw sienna - olive - raw umber - burnt sienna Standard and popular colors - burnt sienna - burnt umberr - ecru - khaki brown - sienna - taupe - carmine - crimson - magenta - maroon - scarlet - peach - pimento - salmon - shrimp - tangerine - terra cotta - vermillion - saffron - chartreuse - emerald - olive green - sage - cerulean - cornflower (light blue) - lapis lazuli - sapphire - teal - ultramarine - cornflower (purple ish) - lavender - lilac - mauve - periwinkle (the purple one. not the blue one) Color dynamics, color alchemy (essentially the exercises) simultaneous contrast - ex. you will look more orange/tan in a blue top - based on the theory of afterimage, directly related to the Young-Helmholtz heory of the physiology of the human eye - assumes that the eye sees color through three types of cone photoreceptors (one for red, green, and blue) and afterimage is caused by retinal fatigue simultaneous contrast of hue - color changes when put next to another color - differences are accentuated more so with complementary colors, and both become more intense Of value - light colors accentuate the depth of dark colors - dark colors accentuate the value of light colors - also, a gray will appear darker on a white background and lighter on a black background Of chroma - a secondary (non primary) color (ex. yellow green) will take on the characteristic hue of the opposite color parent when placed on the other color parent - ex. yellow green will look more yellow when placed on green afterimage - “sensation of color” - fatigued nerve endings will produce an afterimage of an opposite color after staring at one color to long (ex. staring at red produces a green afterimage) - positive afterimage - occurs when you look at a bright and intense color image - when closing or covering eyes you may then continue to see the same brightly colored afterimage - negative afterimage - caused by fatigue of photoreceptors - as eyes adapt to a particular color the over stimulation of the receptor of that particular hue to lose sensitivity to the hue - when turning away from the color you will therefore see the complimentary color in the afterimage - afterimage used in designing and decorating as well as lighting - ex. surgeons wear green to offset the afterimage of blood Also understand the basic concepts of these exercises - Luminosity and movement - Hard edge/ soft edge boundaries - Optically vibrating boundaries Size, weight, recognition, and legibility - size: yellow and white percieved as largest colors, while green then blue, then black, appear successively smaller - weight: light colors appear light, dark values appear heavy - recognition: red is easiest to recognize, even from a distance, followed by green, yellow and white. Colors like blue and purple, especially when lightened, appear blurred - legibility: Black on white is most effective, followed by green on white, then red on white. Red with green or blue is hard to distinguish due to lack of contrast Color meaning/symbolism Red - red blooded (healthy) - red envelope (chinese new year) - red flag (warning) - red handed (criminal with evidence) - red letter day (fortunate event) - red tape (bureaucratic hinderance) - red ticket item (low priced) - red lig
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