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FSN 223 Concepts and Theories

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Ryerson University
FSN 223

FSN 223 Fashion Concepts and Theories Dr. Ben Barry Week 1 Why Study Fashion theory  Think critically about fashion  Use fashion to empower  Reinvent the fashion system Explore, question and re-imagine the production. Promotion and consumption of fashion. Fashion - Sociology - Anthropology - History - Business - Fine Art - Psychology Lecture Topics - Fashion Impulse - Fashion cycles, symbols and flows - Fashion Representation - Eurocentric Fashion System - Fashion, Body Techniques and Identity - Fashion, Aesthetics and Art - Fashion as a Business and Cultural industry - Popular culture and fashion - Politics of fashion - Film Evaluations Theory in action: 15% FEB 13 Wardrobe: 45% MARCH 13 Exam 40% APRIL 15 -17 th th Fashion Impulse: Key Terms - Fashion: prevailing custom of dress ( it is collective, time limited) - Dress: all ornamentation on their body - Style: combination of silhouette, details, fabric... it is personalized - Fad- short term style - Trend- direction that a style/ fashion is heading - Classic- style that has lasted for an indefinite period of time - Anti-Fashion- and outfit of a particular style that is outside of fashion - Fashionable- style that conforms to fashion 3 Main Elements of Fashion - Fashion is a system of Communication o They convey identity o Meaning o Clothes function as symbols o These symbols change in different contexts o Le Saap- group of men in congo, group of tastemakers and elegant people that wear pink. They are the epitome of masculinity. Pink- for a different meaning, gay/homosexual, queer movement- color of pride Versace H&M- pink suit, genderless, new look, avant garde, marketing - Fashion Helps Us Define Ourselves As Individuals and Group Members o We will model ourselves in some ways from another group o Black is the best selling colour- safe (blend in), and slimming, want to stand out, elegant and glamorous, anti-fashion (sub-culture) - Essence of Fashion is Change The Fashion Impulse - Constantly changing clothing codes and stylistic registers-20 (more group) - Clothing codes that balance the impulse to belong to a group and the individual desire to stand out and assert that attributes of the self -48 (individual) The Fashion Paradox - Express yourself, yet conform, sometimes subconsciously - Maintain some customary style be current yet classic - Do we have control. Or following a larger code in fashion Sumptuary Laws - Regulate the ownership of certain clothes - What colors, fabrics types certain class women could wear - Queen/royalty purple and silk - What not to wear- certain look that is acceptable, they all conform, are their rules enforced..? Does Fashion Exist Beyond Consumer Culture? - The Little Black Dress o Black can signify death… only for mourning o Elegance and luxury, nobility o White accents around the face, mood, gesture facial expression - Macaroni o After young men finished university they would take a tour of france and Italy, year of travel to learn food, culture, slim cut clothing, never eaten macaroni and ate it in Italy and brought it back to the UK, fashion was very popular- brought back a slim style and taste in fashion - Sailor o 1800s Functional uniform, wide leg pant, blue and white o To runways, Tommy, Dolce, Chanel o Gay community Does Fashion Exist Beyond Western Culture? - yes - Myth that the traditional ways of dressing are conventional, unchanging not influenced by trends or fads, idea that non western groups haves dressed the same forever - its like looking at the suit it hasn’t changed, but if you look there are differences in the way the aesthetic has changed - Canadian aboriginal, fur trade, cloth and beads o Change in the types of beads they wanted, size & color o Taste was highly subjective o Fashion trends change o Fashion before the westernized consumer culture Chpt. 1 The Fashion Impulse: Many have argued that fashion is a modern cultural practice that coincided with the emergence of capitalism and consumer culture- I have argued fashion is not exclusively the domain of modern culture and its preoccupations with individualism, class, civilization and consumerism. Fashion Impulse- constantly changing clothing codes and stylistic registers - these occur in non-western & non-modern societies - myth that non-western cultures have stable, unchanging clothing codes (called costume/customary dress) Fashion was used to describe the dress performances of preindustrial cultures. It is wrong to suggest that fashion in contemporary cultures is different from that of other societies We can classify the business suit as customary dress but to understand how it is worn we need to examine the performance of the individual wearing the suit to get a sense of identity within the wider suit-wearing group. Same argument with the little black dress-individualized in many different ways. Clothing behavior of many cultures and societies exhibits fashion in how clothes become part of social performance. Term fashion is specific to European culture, fashion changes as well as the concept of fashion. th Fashion- term used since 14 cent. To refer to particular manner of dress/ style Fashion started long before the 1th century, traced in Canadian Natives customers, and in 1670 (formation of Hudson’s Bay) signaled the start of lucrative fur trade, was very specific in types of cloth, beads, etc. Tastes changed and were highly volatile. These demands all exhibit the criteria of fashion. Tastes changed both at individual and collective levels The First People set the terms of demand and the European traders employed modern marketing strategies to satisfy the fashion impulse Chapter 3 Fashion cycles, symbols and flows Fashion as cycles and structures - fashion theory explires a number of fashion’s different roles: a symbol of essential humanness, chronology of human development, organic process of civility, descriptive shorthand for the features of a culture or selection - fashions are abandoned because of better, newer models and changes in taste - fashion mechanism appears not in response to a need of class differentiation and class emulation but in response to a wish to be in fashion, to be abreast of what had good standing, to express new tastes which are emerging in a changing world. Blumers three features of fashion custom: - uniformity through consensus about a prevailing mode or trend and its connotations or associations with property (conformity to established manners) - orderly and regulated way to monitor and mark the shifting underpinnings of social norms (religious-civil- ones sensibility to another) - act of accepting/ rejecting- shaped by changing cultural conventions Davis emphasizes - the failure of collective selection theory (along with trickle-down) to adequately consider the palpable influence of the elaborate institutional apparatus surrounding the propagation of fashion in the domain of dress FSN223- Fashion Concepts & Theories January 23, week 2 Fashion Cycles, Symbols and Flows Discussion: Men and Eating Disorders What is a theory? -a lens to understand a phenomenon, like a theory, -one perspective, each theory is a different colour of lens What are Fashion Cycles and Flows? -Trickle-Down; start at the top(influential), elite or fashion leaders and move down to the masses or fashion followers(elite to the mass population) -introduced by Thorstein Veblen, wrote during industrial revolution, upper class looked very different then lower, and then eventually the lower classes would copy them, (make/buy) but of lower quality. Emulate -George Simmel, said it applied strictly to fashion three stages, elite wanted to differentiate themselves through fashion, lower copied upper to achieve idea of upward social mobility, as lower copied, they would change, to remain appearing differently, two opposing forces, imitate & differentiate are two major forces -Grant McCracken, wrote culture consumption, “in todays society its not based on wealth so much, not the most powerful, changes must be made to this theory”, no longer richest who people emulate, but the most powerful and influential. Still trickles down, but the elite are not the richest, but most powerful. -EXAMPLE: the corset, very expensive materials, lower class would reproduce with the boning, bust in wood(not same impact, power), changed, in and out of fashion as lower class adopted, H&M collabs with designers, a lot of the major prints are reproduced, some patterns, but with cheaper fabrics, colours not as vibrant, etc Who are the Fashion Leaders Today? -Kate Middleton, Michelle Obama, us (street style sites), anyone in the media, Are some consumer groups consistently excluded from Trickle-Down Theory? -Plus size? -Segregation -Trickle-Up; start among the masses (youth, sub-cultures) and move upward to the fashion leaders and elites. Come from everyday, street influence. Clothes always take on different meaning when they trickle up, -1970, “Status Float Phenomenon”, G.A Field, shift in cultural attitude, sub cultural groups forming, identity politics, people no longer identified themselves with a certain class, but movement instead, express themselves through appearance. Designers started to take styles, attach new meaning to them, as soon as designer took style, the sub-cultural group would take new style -Ted Polhemus; talked about street style, before blogs, etc. How that influenced others, wrote “street Style”, in 1994, in 2010, updated, people wanted to identify with real people, authenticity, designer needs to take up motif, -EXAMPLES: Denim; durable and practical, Levi’s, taken up by US army, navy, workers, all over high fashion, key staple, Vivieene Westwood, upset with the hatred, war, etc going on in world, hated older generation for not doing anything, was a punk to make society more just, equitable, part of subculture, took group, brought it to the runway, influence and power made it popular, she was actually part of how she identified herself, making it more authentic. Bloggers to magazines, How has the Internet changed the trickle-up dynamic? -pop up anywhere, people are changing style so much, rotation, or combine different looks, “style-surfing”, “When will today’s fashion journalist realize that their job now is to celebrate and present the diversity which is all around us rather than to try to cram everything into a single direction?” (Ted Polhemus), designers lending clothes, just so people in the industry could be photographed wearing their clothes, -Trickle-Across; Fashion moves horizontally from fashion leaders to masses at same social level. Much debate over. Started as critique of trickle-down, C.W King said “no longer explains fashion diffusion, leaders to masses but at the same strata” each kind of sub-culture, two main reason; mass production, (sell at different markets/ different price points, simultaneously) and the mass media, brings fashion to homes instantly. No need to be wealthy, or in the industry to see it. Styles emerge and are shared simultaneously, between levels. EXAMPLES: zara man and Balmain Homme(FW10), very similar styles across multiple price points, whatever is on trend, you can buy regardless of price point, diffusion of ideas simultaneously Where is the line between Thievery and Inspiration? -mercy(small Canadian fashion brand) in 2008($300), diane von frustenberg copied in 2009($1000), employee fired, company sued, H&M/zara will alter patterns to defend themselves, Fashion Cycle: Elites Elites Mass Pop Across West Non-west Mass Population -Cultural Appropriation -being inspired, fashion flowing from one culture to another -appropriation vs appreciation; when adopted, removed from indigenous context and new meaning is caked on, -EX. Jean Paul Gaultier, ss2005, beading inspired by beading in Kenya, -cultural appropriation; susan scafidi, “Taking intellectual property, traditional knowledge, cultural expressions, or artifacts from someone else’s culture without permission.” “Harmful when the source community is a minority group when power relationship is not equal” -the harm of cultural appropriation 1. Misrepresentation of culture (one is reduced, diluted to single culture) 2. dehumanizes and devalues culture,( could be insulting, when put on an outfit, thought of simply as costume, stop thinking of them as real people, or real cultures) 3. Removes context and meaning -How can I Ethically be inspired? By Susan Scafidi, the Three S Test -source; given approval? Source been consulted? Involved in creating -significance; designers, consumers need to think of importance, religious significance that needs more respect? -similarity; how similar is appropriate item from original, or just a nod to colours or silhouette? (Navajo nation & Urban outfitter, took direct print, put on clothing, underwear, flasks, very upset, and sued, won) -context and sharing; try to provide historical or cultural context, background information, celebrated, (sunny fong, always inspired by cultures, always includes background info) involve culture, where idea is coming from in some of production, sourcing, profit sharing, give back to community, -can a culture claim ownership over designs? 1. Who are the stakeholders of a culture? 2. Does intellectual property constrain creativity? 3. How can you ethically borrow from cultures? -complicated, for example, from the Congo, the sol de…. Where they wear all the bright suits? Inspired a English designer Paul Smith and then ended up on the runway, almost exactly, -Recycling Fashion 1. Historical Continuity (natural evolution) 2. Shifting Erogenous Zones (parts of the body that are exposed by fashion loses their erotic power over time) 3. Pendulum Swing (changes from one extreme to the polar opposite) 4. Dynamic Cycle or Recurring Wave (fashion trend recurs eventually) 5. Historicism or Retro (elements of past style that are repeated, with a slight change, may not have same companion element) Fashion Symbols -fashion is a system of communication -economic development -conveys meaning -fashion system: “codified rule about garments, accessories and combining these to create particular looks” (Craik 2009, 121) -Language of clothes by Alice Lurie “Long before I am near enough to talk to you on the street… you announce your sex, age, and class to me through what you are wearing-and very possibly give me important information (or misinformation) as you your occupation, origin, personality, opinions, tastes, sexual desires and current mood” (lurie 3, 1981) -can show political, social conditions of a particular era -understand meaning behind individual piece, semiotics, a menu/recipe is what you need to do to analyze their wardrobe -Roland Barthes, French scholar, two keys books “The Fashion System” and “Elements od semiology” Concepts and Theory Week 3 Noreen Flanagan, Editor in Chief, Elle Canada - Sample sizes… all different, they don’t get to choose what they get - Bags are one size fits all - Was told not to put a black model on the cover because it wouldn’t sell well - 10 years working, they were only featured in 2 - became editor in chief 2 ½ years ago - black model on cover.. % had dropped… unfortunately - showing progress and commitment to featuring black models/ models of different race - Entire art team is made up of Ryerson grads! - Important to feature a whole range of models throughout - Ben worked with creative director giving suggestions about who to feature… models of all shapes and sizes and ages (these inspirational women are going to be in the next Elle “New Business Model”) models-benefit-brands/a/58327 - Valerie- incredible, broken ankle, cancer, heart problem pushed through it all Her Career - studied to be a nurse, child nurse - worked with a lot of young girls with eating disorders - left children’s hospital traveled, Iran, Pakistan, Nepal, shared a ride with a journalist.. she would rather be writing about her adventures/ where she was volunteering at - fresh start… no blood, bones, or tears - then went back to school for journalism - worked for newspaper in Vancouver, edited small fishing magazine - worked for 7 years, no fashion - got married, went to central America.. set up eco tourism things - ran out of money came to Toronto - ad for flare… 3 years, health, features, managing, executive then editor in chief - then went to Elle when it came to Canada has been there ever since - keep eyes, ears open, may open doors - many unplanned experiences/opportunities - Every day is different, emails, marketing/advertising, co-producing, ways to serve client and reader - Goes to a lot of events… - Non stop! - She is like an advocate to the reader… interest in story telling, she is a journalist, has an interest in fashion, but Elle is not all about fashion - Interest in fashion, beauty, culture interest in international outcomes, it is the woman you would hope to be… current on the worlds trends in fashion and culture - Doesn’t just report, but does it in a colourful and playful way - Print is dead, everything going online- all newsstands are down.. 14% from last year… everyone switch to iPad editions … struggle. It isn’t bringing in as much revenue that they want it to. Must work with audio and effects they didn’t before. Their website is servicey. IPad includes sounds, movement extra photos. They get to tell different stories. Print isn’t dead yet. But stories will never die. - Newsstand isn’t as relevant as it used to be. 3 of the 12 issues will feature colored models - All responsible for filtering culture. Some hide behind magazines…point fingers. Everyone has a role including consumers. - Always had a broad perspective on who their reader is - Works 3-6 months ahead Fashion and Representation 1. What conventions explain the representation of women in fashion> a. The western beauty ideal b. Objectification and the gaze c. Dismemberment 2. How do these conventions apply to men? 3. Assignment tweet image to @DrBenBarry, Name the theory, Include #FSN223 What conventions explain the representation of women in fashion - Jean Kilbourne, can’t buy my love. Looked at the impact of the message (advertising), Feminist Ashley Mears- a model, if models all look the same how does one rise to the top, she went undercover as a model and used that as research for her PHD Western Body Ideals - Normative body promoted in fashion (global) - Height: 5’10-5’11 - Size 0-2| Age 13-22 - Caucasian - Able Bodied - Bust 34, waist 24, hips 34 - 5% of women have a chance at being a model - very clear ideal but it hasent always been that way - 80s, 90s.. models were a size 8… over time they have been slimming down - average model weighs 23% less than a regular women - before it was only 8% - today models are the thinnest they have ever been - Charles Worth- brittish fashion designer based in paris… He created the live mannequin, he drew women from his workshop floor, all the criteria he had was that they had to be good mannered - Cristobal Balenciaga- used models, but bulkier shorter- because he thought it suited his brand better - Ideals of size have changed over time and according to country - Size ideals are historically and culturally specific - Anna giordin- Italian artist wanted to know what would renaissance paintings look like today, when the ideal was curvy. She flattened stomachs, and thinned thighs.. - What is the meaning of only seeing thin models? o Exclusive glamorization of one body type. Why? o That size has been naturalized o Feminist study: cultural fear of female power, it is going hand in hand with women’s rising status, beauty ideal has become thinner and thinner, allows women to focus all of their energy on bodies- taken away from other dreams, careers, and aspirations - What are other interpretations of the exclusive use of female thinness in fashion o Most practical for the industry o Aesthetic of the fashion looks better on certain body types o Just because there are two similar things doesn’t mean there is in fact a connection o These images all have different messages… - What is the impact of ultra thin models? o Anne Becker- study in Fiji before there was American television introduces, little talk of dieting, celebrated curves. Went back 3 years later, 74% of teenagers felt too big, 64% had started dieting to look more like the people they saw on TV. Why is there one ideal being celebrated? o One ideal is to maintain distinction between high fashion from commercial mass production brands o High fashion models communicate luxury lifestyle, brand identity o Increasingly mass production brands want to present themselves as on the same level as high fashion o They even hire the same models - Economic Objective o Always an ideal that you hope to achieve by purchasing their product o Karl Lagerfeld: unreachable beauty is a reminder to make an effort o What consumers find aspirational was to have the look/fashion/artistry/styling of the clothes/accessories... and it didn’t have anything to do with the model - Sample Size o One prototype for every garment and all collections o Walk down the runway o Printed o Magazines are always working ahead so they need the first images of the garments o Production is always a step ahead o It is too expensive to buy extra fabric etc. o There is a time crunch…with 4 lines/shows a year, no time for alterations, tradition. We all learn to make clothes that will fit the mannequin/judy. You will follow what is expected of you. This convention gets locked in as a norm. Easier to get a thinner model… easier to take in clothes - Unthinking Reasons o Models are clothes hangers, fall better on thin body, easier to make (bigger/ different sized models distract from the clothes on runway) o Designers/stylists are gay men, they want to create a masculine look, boyish figure - Race and Representation o After WW2 that’s when black fashion models were being featured in magazines o 1 on vogue was Beverly Jonston 1974 o 1969 Naomi Sims, first black model on the cover of Life o Oct. 2005 first Asian on Vogue, 2013 January Italian Vogue o Jezebel said that spring summer 2013 was the most diverse group. 79.4 % were white, 8.1% black, 10.1% Asian, 1.9% Latina, 0. 9% Other o More non-Caucasian in summer/spring shows. o All models in the world only 16% are non-Caucasian - Ethnically Lite| Exotic Ethnicity o Ethically lite- pass as white with a touch of otherness (mixed race) o Exotic ethnicity- really stand out as being different/ not white you can tell my the styling and photography direction - Diversity of Asian Women o I-D magazine - Tokenism o Vogue – The World’s Next Top Models o Idea of brand that they are diverse, research found that legitimizes exclusion, naturalizes challenge o Vogue Italy only featured black models - Why is Fashion Not hiring ethnic diversity? - The racist reasons- o 1. The market is to blame  a. not aspirational  b. non-Caucasians don’t buy luxury (blacks are more often the buyer of luxury) o 2. Models are a blank canvas  a. dark skin competes with clothes  b. “Personality” distracts from fashion  Verreos- girls of colour take away from the garments, to fierce - Why is there still such little ethnic diversity despite the years of attention this issue has garnered? - Objectification o What body positioning, facial expressions… what message does it convey o Reducing a persons worth or role to their sexual function o Disregards a person’s character, personality and intelligence o Off balance, blank expression (no thought of her own), limbs bent, defenselessness o The gaze- John Berger: says it shows paintings of naked women.. it was all scene through mens eyes, “men act, women appear, women watch themselves being looked at” o Laura Mulvey- the male gaze- women are objectified on film because heterosexual men produce it. Women as an object. It is about power, women is passive. Gazed become subservient, the one that does the looking gains the power. o Camera angle, above, equal, below, eyes locked on viewer, looking away? o Is the female gaze always male? Female gaze is the same as the male gaze, women have been trained to see themselves through the eyes of a straight man. o Can the gaze be a positive force? o Selfies? Internalizing the gaze, or do they have power because they chose how they are portrayed. Subject and the creator - How can fashion images represent women in a non-objectifying manner? o Many different ways to see a picture, many different perspectives - Dismemberment o Highlighting one part of the body while ignoring all the other parts o Effect is that a person is not a whole human being but instead on sexualized part o Views their body as multiple pieces, makes you feel insecure because there will always be one part you aren’t content with… - How do there conventions apply to men? o Height: 6’0-6’2 o Waist: 28 o Chest 36 o Age 16-26 o Caucasian o Used to be the ideal jacket size was a 40, now is a 36, slimming of the male model o Hyper muscular, 90s objectification of male body o Hyper masculine or quite slender (2 extremes) o Same categories, racialized, 16% of top male models were not white, 4 black, 1 asian… still prevalence of Caucasian o Male objectified still. o Male gaze… expanded and inverted o Dismemberment A&F bags/Ads FSN223-Concepts and Theories February 13 , week 5 South Korean Women & Cosmetic Surgery -culturally accepted, what you do 1. Why is Paris considered the Fashion Capital? Can it be challenged? 2. What are the “new” non-western fashion capitals? 3. What makes a fashion city? 4. Wardrobe Assignment: First Step (quick brief) The Eurocentric Fashion System -82, the big 5, Tokyo was added, 5 major took designers showed in Paris fashion week -Paris always known as capital of fashion -haute couture; high quality fashion, high quality everything Why Paris?? -Charles worth- the father of Haute Couture -1858; start of haute couture, European state of fashion, started fashion house -English, from England, did training in London, moved to Paris in 1845, started studio 1852 -costume with historical dress, careful attention to fit, -highest standard of tailoring, craftsmanship -luxury materials and trimming -looked to past as well as future, where can fashion go? -changed role of designer 2 ways; GENDER (man designing for women, used to be intimacy between women tailor and client, broke gender regulations), CREATER/ARTISIT (used to be made accustomed to what clients want, he created own collection and then clients would pick, he would customize certain elements like colour, trim, SOME of the time) -very arrogant, never listened to customers, refuse to do what they wanted sometimes, only his vision and aesthetics -The business Model -elite, very elaborate, line -then one for less wealthy, -use of marketing and promotion, done in different ways; dressmaker used to visit home of clients, while he had client come to his luxurious studio -presented collection by using models, series of house models who were always available, started off with wife, and then she trained new girls (in a sense like the first fashion show) -send wife and models to events that clients would go to, mix with other women at events in order to show off creations and see them outside his salon -Giovanni Bedin- House of Worth -closed in 1956 (was ran by family) -reopened in 1999, he designed -still exists Parisian Federation of High Fashion -first creation started by Worth -then more came in -distinction between Haute Couture and Ready to wear -promote Parisian wear, -first organization -stage two collections, at least 50 designs, elite cliental, have at least 20 workers to be in -then had first fashion week in 1930, first established fashion show -1928 started fashion school -industry is organized -still exists, -haute couture is under law, still regulates who can use this term in marketing -many requirements to be in New Business Strategy -yves saint Laurent, started other lines=more money -to make money, more categories -declining in percentage of sales of couture -more money in rtw -in 2004 only 10 official haute couture houses, in 2002 YSL left -decline in customer base -around 2000 couture customers in the world -not necessarily purchasing, lending out for things like awards shows for celebrities -increased competition that brands face (copying of designers more and more) -Visible logo, allows brands to following branding strategy to compete -efficient financial management; more of business than ever before, Bernard Amault, owns many brands such at fendi, Dior, Chanel -balance between iconic piece for season, critical acclaimed in media, making designer a “star” -independent houses to being part of huge group Is couture irrelevant or important today? -think of couture when think of major houses such as YSL or Chanel -when hear someone wants to be in industry, many automatically think of couture, runway, extravagant dresses -sets standard that everyone looks at when designing rtw -allows designer to showcase exactly what they want, and their work because they are an artist, last chance to really express themselves (every other form they must appeal to customer) -history, valuable part of industry Challenging Paris as the Fashion Capital -immigrants, under the table “Made in Italy” in globalized world -over 4000 Chinese owned garment shops, in Tuscany -import cheap textiles, trimmings etc. from china then sell with made in Italy tag -Italy worried it is ruining reputation What are the “new” non-western fashion capitals? th -Shanghai- the 6 fashion capital??? -plans to build it into -return to past glory, before wwII, used to be known as “Paris of the east” -Shanghai fashion week to rival NY and Paris -Shanghai fashion week; started in 1995 as trade show, now fashion week twice a year, -many extravagant flagships -street style -3 major challenges: Defining Chinese Fashion(establish original contribution; history, legacy, heritage harnesses?, tension between global and traditional elements, blend trends in non obvious ways with history), Branding Chinese Fashion (city where something is made gives clear meaning, and credibility, global perception is cheap and undercutting European and US brands in China, changing low cost to original and fresh, changing brand image), Identifying as Chinese(many have had much success, Parson in NY, tripled between 1998-2008, many showing abroad, success much of the time comes from showing in established fashion capitals, earn credibility from showing there) What Makes a Fashion City? Leading cities (2012, based on media things..): 1. London 2. NYC 3. Barcelona 4. Paris 5. Madrid 6. Rome 7. Sao Paulo 8. Milan 9. Los Angeles 10.Berlin 31.Vancouver 52.Montreal 53.Toronto; LAST. (was 34 in 2011) The Fashion City Typology: 1. Economic Capital (money and resources; government policy with funding, (in Paris is it cultural, lots of funding) 2. Social Capital (networks if influence/support) 3. Cultural Capital (regimes of taste) 7 Specific Fashion City Elements 1. Training and research institutions(college, universities, London prob leader, concentrated amount of leading institutions) 2. Skilled and Specialized subcontractors( all aspects, need people who understand everything all in city) 3. Promotional infrastructure(need something to promote within and out of city) 4. Design Tradition (local, sartorial aesthetic that makes city unique in design, can be history, etc.) 5. Fashion Consumption(key luxury shops like in shanghai, Paris, problem is many are overrun by shops that are all over the place, independent designers, vintage, etc. will be useful) 6. Links between fashion and cultural industries(does not operate by itself, connected to many kinds of arts, link between opera and galleries, how can they help and support each other) 7. Links within fashion industry (what is linking designers and business to connect them all together as one) Important to building fashion City: -Independent boutiques -generate info on consumer preferences (local) -closer relationship with designer/brand and buyer(get info from consumers, then back to designer) -can get direct feedback if designer owns, -add to character of city -help develop fashion identity -Fashion Weeks -promote relations between players in industry -create networking space where ideas can be discussed, and many can network -interest and engagement for consumers -Montreal; shows, informal breakfasts(network), have showroom, include other cultural activities(concerts, plays, etc), -most governments view it as marketing their brand or city rather than creating a sense of identity and community(seen simply as a stage) Toronto -1900s, Jewish immigrants came from eastern Europe, live in Ward Neighbourhood, King and Spadina -many worked at sears, Eaton’s as seamstress’ and tailors -then left and started own businesses -many grew into business’ like Harry Rosen -3 largest design,…. 30,000 workers -Toronto Fashion Incubator; first incubator In world, copied by London, Miami, etc.. -space for emerging fashion people to build business -host seminars, promotions, mentorship, etc. -new label show, platform for up and comers -get right info, support, launch -Fashion’s Night Out; encourage consumers to buy locally, culture of people celebrating, buying and supporting fashion -World MasterCard Fashion Week -now sold to IMG, own many fashion weeks -connections for international byers, press, etc. -concern; will we lose identity? Is designers heart there? Sponsorship, such as Mercedes, see value in associating, is interest in designers or making sponsors happy??? Charge designers lots of money starting at 7,000$ then pay for models, stylists, PR, DJ, etc. Media also being charged now. Who’s best interest is at heart?? -must show on site, sponsors logo takes priority, will you be branded??? Is Toronto a fashion city? If not, how can we become one? Do we have the right infrastructure? Can Toronto genuinely complete with the “big four”? How? Can Canada have three fashion capitals or does it need to focus on one? FSN Concepts and Theories week 6 Guest: Lise – top plus size model manager, works with Ben - was an international model - 19 years in the industry - less influence when she was a teenager an worked as a receptionist at a large photography studio and filled in for a model when she didn’t show up - was told she needed to eat less if she wanted to be a model - went to university got a job at the eaton centre.. worked with customers at both ends of the size spectrum - then was introduced to plus size modeling - worked in Chicago, Miami, Africa.. etc. - between sizes- huge gap in the market.. straight sizes can go to a 14 and plus sizes go from 14-24.. - there are a lot of women who wear 16,18 straight size and there really isn’t a market for that - Yorkdale- laura plus.. fits niche in market, banana republic discontinued 16s, tallots- moves the plus size to bloor and young…, Gap- disappointment.. didn’t have 36 available, Old Navy- has up to size 20, online, Sears- bathing suits came with skirts- didn’t want that, H&M- plus sizes only in Europe or in the states. - NICHE- 16-18… - UK and Denmark have this- edgy, modern looks for those in betweeners - Bridal wear lacking too - Shopping is an experience, - Curvy women do a lot of lingerie and nudes because they have no clothes to wear.. a lot of jeans and simple shirts - Women holding samples- because they can not fit into it - Personal style, she wore her own clothes - Homemakers- style story.. how to wear black and white, picked Lise- ordered custom made leather jacket and boots.. she never mentioned size in article, just style- positive feedback - Stock images- any size model can be used. Make them more curvy - Jennifer Hudson- in between size. Designers started making more samples etc. there are now choices for these actors - MODE magazine- 1997 folded 2001 (because of 911) Amazing ads, plus size, the ads filtered into other magazines , went from quarterly to 12 mags the second year - Beauty ads- fuller face - Grace Magazine, Figure Magazine… lifestyle, and fashion lifestyle but they wanted a FASHION magazine. They want an amazing editorial, just in their size - Lou Lou, Slink (UK), Beautiful, Plus Model Magazine, MR (high end amazing editorials) - TItiles like Just as Beautiful- give off the wrong impression - Runway show, Alana muro (italy)- constantly had plus sizes, now models are getting smaller - Represent your size range on the runway - Plus size trying to get into Fashion Week - Think of footwear when pairing it with the size of the woman, no more stilettos - Boots are an issue with a person with a bigger frame - Sketches- reflect curves and body type - Minnie example- turned fashionista. - What companies do to save money- also available in plus sizes, plus sizes available online, only make small sample sizes for PR useage, use only models 0-4 in ads to rep all size ranges, sell set-minimum size groupings - Huge opening- Accessories: gloves, hosiery, belts, necklaces & bangles, footwear, tights - Designers creating garments for bigger stars, Tadashi Shoji- understands roushing, Anna Scholz- carried in most major stores in the US (Sacs), Igigi- store in the US, cuts that flatter all different body figures, INC- exact same lines in straight and plus, Jessica Simpson- edgier designs available in the US, - Blogger/ Sites- Vogue curvy, Marie Denee, Nicolette Mason, Gabi Gregg, Monique Frusto, Plus Model Magazine. - What is really needed- sleek edgy collections, junior plus lines, bathing suits, designer evening dresses, wedding dresses- with samples, accessory lines, wide calf boot collections, maternity, designer coat lines, winter outerwear - Addition elle – only plus size boots - Larger Men Plus size men!!! NICHE WIDE OPEN Fashion, The Body and Identity I – talk to the people who are buying your product – always challenge the industry – workers were unable to go to france for fashion week in world war two – new york press fashion week – 1918 foreign buyers came to America to fashion week – Paris was still the first fashion week 1. What is the social body? 2. How do we fashion the social body? a. Femininity b. Masculinity 3. How do we analyze the social body What is the social body? - Our bodies are not natural - As soon as we put on clothes we switch to a social body - Identity we want to give off - Our bodies are conduits of power - How we dress is a- Result of cultural and social power - Different identities inform and have power over how we dress- gender, culture etc. - The more we follow the rules we have cultural capital- social value that allows people to receive higher hierarchy, power over social context - Labels are a good way to do this - Our bodies are more than hangers- how we move our gestures and environment.. combination gives us a performance… often seen as natural but its not and it can change over time - Social body is more than just clothes - Power relations of history and culture - Habitus (Marcel Mauss) refers to the specialized techniques and internalized knowledge that equip people to negotiate different spaces they occupy and roles they perform- Craik - Our Bodies are a sight of struggle- so much choice and options, price points, media… - Less formal rules of who we can be, before it was dictated by our family and social status and class - Work hard to maintain and create our individuality - Social body is not just clothes gestures movement, power to be in this role I have to perform act dress a certain way How do we fashion the social bo
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