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Q-Cards for final Art History Exam 232

17 Pages

Course Code
FSN 232
Kimberly Wahl

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19 century an age of revolutions (the ‘’ culmination of Enlightenment thinking and a new focus on social equality) clashes between different classes of people Nineteenth-Century Realism The industrial revolution (starting in England) Transformation of economy from agricultural to industrial Invention of the Steam Engine and new materials like Iron and steel Social and political movements for the rights of workers Gleaners, 1857 - These people who work in the fields are noble and heroic.. This is a pure way of life.. Jean-François Millet - Darkness in the front lit up in the back.. Representing contrast between the classes - Railway Barron- people became very wealthy because of the railway.. Land owners became more wealthy poor became poorer Horse Fair, 1853 Specialized in painting animals She would cross dress to be allowed entrance to slaughter houses to sketch anatomies Strains of romanticism-Rearing up, sky dark/stormy Rosa Bonheur Close relationship with realism and other movements of the time 1894 first female artist with the legion of honour Interior of My Studio: A Real Allegory Summing Up Seven Years of My Life as an Artist from 1848 to 1855 , 1855 Amplified importance of himself , rejected historical painting, idealism and fantasy. Thought Gustave Courbet it should be about real life and personal experiences.Modern- artist chooses what to paint Left (his past) - poor and working class, Right (his present and future) bourgeoisie Third-Class Carriage 1862 Interior of a First-Class Carriage , 1864 Contrasting the experiences of riding on the early Honoré Daumier railways - Social injustice Interest in industrial subjects 3 class with 1 class Mostly engaged in satirical drawings for publications, political cartoonist ‘’ View From His Window at Gras, 1826 Invention of photography One of the earliest photographs ever produced Joseph-Nicéphore Niepce Big influence on artists- if they have photographs they asked what is the purpose of art. Art had to evolve 1850s onward- Debate weather photography was a form of art or not Mrs. Herbert Duckworth, 1867 Largely used her friends and family as subjects Often dismissed because she was an amateur. She wanted to remain an amateur because it allowed her Julia Margaret Cameron more freedom She thought that photography was a form of art. Avoided commercial studio setting Image of beauty. Particular type of beauty during the Victorian period. Roman nose Ecce Ancilla Domini (The Annunciation) 1850 English pre-Raphaelite – english form of realism After Raphael all art was bad.. Idealizing notions.. But they felt like it was authentic Believed virgin adolescent.. Unsure of her place.. Dante Gabriel Rossetti Iconographical elements.. Halo, lily, open window.. Combination of interest in historical past with new idealization John Ruskin 1854 - Attention to detail and nature, truth to nature - Effie (wife of Ruskin) marriage was annulled.. Idealized women's body.. Was prudish.. Intellectually brilliant, but a social outcast John Everett Millais - Natural setting - Ruskin conflicted figure.. Greatest critic and writer of his generation Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe 1863 - Realist to impressionist - Believed that art should convey a truth - Was rejected by the salon - Offended that they knew who the nude was Édouard Manet and then offended that she wasn’t seen as a Venus figure Olympia 1865 - Scandal, inspired by Venus - represents a prostitute - emphasis on how it was painted Crystal Palace, London 1850-1851 ‘’ Transitional figure Important in development of modern art Joseph Paxton Visual spectacle, exhibition Things from all over the world Height of British empire- sense of ownership over the rest of the world Impressionism: Began in Paris in the 1860s, caught on in the 70s and 80s. Was more loosely linked with the experience of modern life (modernity). Subject Nineteenth-Century Impressionism matter- leisure events, entertainment, landscape. Influenced by photography & Japonisme. Based on drawing from experience and observation. At first, was rejected. Artists put on their own shows and exhibitions. Eventually gaining popularity. They wanted to discourage revolutions.. People would block streets.. This allowed more military control so they bulldozed large places in Paris to Aerial View of the Place de l’Étoile, Paris create boulevards Changed how you felt about the city.. New sense of being seen. More interest in fashion Napoleon the 3 . Modernized Paris.. Wanted it to be a European capital A Bar at the Folies-Bergère , 1881-1882 Transitional figure, became an impressionist Capturing the effects of colour and light Themes of the modern city: effects of pollution… Édouard Manet haziness in the background Blurred effects (movement on film- effects of photography) Influenced by photography- importance of framing – life exists beyond the edges of the painting Moulin de la Galette, 1876 Outdoor leisure scenes. New city spaces Parks with parties at night Pierre-Auguste Renoir Congregate to see and be seen by others Inspired by bourgeoisie.. Interest in fashion, lifestyle, traveling Convergence of different classes Social mobility & instability- anything could happen Dancing Lesson 1883-1885 ‘’ Framing technique Floor rises up to meet viewers perspective Manipulation of angles.. Goes back to photography Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas Used it in compositional way, a tool for capturing the scene Dynamic sense of movement Brushwork Repetitive use of colors, influenced by japonese prints Boating Party, 1893-1894 Female impressionists Themes that show a different perspective on the Mary Cassatt modern world Mother and children- scene that comes up over and over again with female artists The Cradle 1873 Women impressionist Because they were Victorian women, there were stuck in domestic places.. They wouldn’t go out by themselves Berthe Morisot in the city. Constrained.. They painted what they know- interiors, mothers with children etc. Outdoor scenes still being enclosed, claustrophobic, anxiety, trapped Bassin des Nymphéas (Water Lilly Pond)1904 Requisite big name impressionist Analysis of light and colour and its affect on nature and the viewer Claude Monet Rouen Cathedral, West Façade, Sunlight 1894 Rouen Cathedral, the Portal and the Tower of Albane, the Morning 1894 Same subject different atmosphere & perspective Still painting impressionistic work into the 90s when others had moved on The Thinker 1881 Classical in nature Forms are treated in the same ways paintings are Auguste Rodin Jaggedness and heaviness to the work Painting created with palette knife Nocturne in Black and Gold (The Falling Rocket) ‘’ 1875 Trans European artist Work was very experimental Ruskin publically tried to humiliate Whistler… said he James Abbott McNeill Whistler threw paint at the canvas A lot of people felt that it is unfinished,,, He would apply think gauzy layers of paint that would create an atmosphere ‘Post-Impressionism’ = a broad range of approaches Influenced by impressionism- drawn to bright colours and brushwork Different: pronounced use of form and line to distinguish objects Post-Impressionism and the late Nineteenth-Century Two broadly defined trends: 1) Technical concerns: Cezanne and Seurat 2) Emotional themes/content: van Gogh and Gauguin (influenced more by Symbolism) At the Moulin Rouge: The Dance, 1890 Influenced by Degas, Interested in dance & cropping obsessed with movement because of his own problem Characteristic of line and flattening of space Space- modern, graphic.. Emphasize texture -graphic Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec La Goulue at the Moulin Rogue 1891 combining fine arts and commercial art Flat unmolded backgrounds to emphasize typography Social entities- respectful, beautiful, professional Outlined in black- 2D Graphic Still Life with Apples 1875-1877 Fundamental to art historians & history of western art Has been called the father of modern art Structure and device- systematic approach.. Rational in his thinking towards painting Paul Cézanne 2D space Flatten space- brings background to the front He felt the world could be reduced to a sphere, a cone and a cylinder.. Reduced to basic shapes Great Bathers 1898-1905 1880- ended with impressionists Precursor to abstract paintings of landscapes &figures Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1884-1886 Pointillism, combine dots of colour and creates an George Seurat illusion of the colour Interested in how the human eye perceives colour Bodies and space- portrait of leasure. Notion of figures in a landscape. figures are just one of many elements, lacks emotion Bedroom at Arles 1889 ‘’ Emotional. Portrait of loneliness... Treats space in a random unrealistic way. He changes some of the elements so if makes the human eye confused. Vincent van Gough Intentionally a sense of uncertainty Symbolic use of 2.. Use of green- Sense of anixety.. Sickly, ill health Starry Night 1889 Graphic quality of line and colour as one element Use of black outline of form… easiest way to identify post-impressionist work Painted this while he was in a mental hospital Nevermore, 1897 Post-Impressionist- were hostile against the urban city. Retreated from the modern context Tahitian version of the reclining Venus.. 2D, Japanese prints, non-western approaches to the Paul Gauguin world, graphic invested in understanding local mythology Strange tension between east and west The Scream 1893 Portrait of mental illness, distraught mind Affected by the art movements Had done electric shock treatment Anxiety, loneliness horror Edvard Munch Figure in background- ghostly human life is transient blending into wood Blood red sky- something awful is coming.. Different ranges of artists most associated with the french. Decadence (described literature) in literature made their way into artwork Focus on the inner working of the mind of the artist 1880-1890s- more focus on romanticism and beauty.. Sybolism Wildness of nature, uncontrollable forces of the human mind.. All coming back Science evolution. Pessimistic attitude with scientific findings. Insanity cultural decline, personal trauma, modern existence Galatea 1880-1881 Forms and colors and forms chosen by the artists were symbols only known by the artists (only artists have Gustave Moreau access to this) Vision, mood, emotion of the painting that is important Strong in france and belgium “New Woman”-confident, worked, culturally threatening, instability of gender Salomé with the Head of John the Baptist 1893 ‘’ Salome- horrific frightening, mannish Codes of gender, men look more feminine Rise in awareness of homosexuality, and the new woman Aubrey Beardsley People actually started to accept it in art and cultural aspects. Gender roles being questioned and being depicted as something perverse Now celebrated for his graphic quality Staircase of the Maison Tassel, Brussels 1892 Rise in new interest in design Art nouveau- design movement Victor Horta Short shelf life.. 1895-1904 .. Huge impact in art and fashion world into the 1930s- Art Deco Belgian architect Kiss 1908 Poster on every college wall 1897 artists formed Vienna cessation- art nouveau, symbolist themes Allegorical mural- delayed, initially when Gustav Klimt commissioned his style was much less abstract and erotic Turn of the century- decadence Major shifts and changes Electric lights, transformed culture in 1890s, Cars, Massive computers, Paris center of the art world World fair- 1889 Eiffel tower was built for it Exposition Universelle Paris, 1889 1900 paris exhibition- art nouveau Painting- evolving taste.. Individual artists. Changing styles.. Interest in other cultures in the end of the 19 century Primitivism - Non-interest in western art. After 20 cent. Art tried to be more global. Rise in different cultural museums. Took artifacts, artwork, and important things to put it in museums Ritualistic, timeless, eternal, not associated with their actual cultures.. They would look at things and describe what they thought it was for Western and European artists- abstractions ‘’ Old Guitarist, 1903 Blue Period 1901-1904.. Reflects el greco.. Pablo Picasso Spanish- admired early in his career Experimental with his approach Created his own style- represents symbolists artwork Always somewhat influenced by movements of the time Poor and downtrodden Parisian art Notre-Dame in the Late Afternoon 1902 Vauves- movement also known as the wild beasts. 1905 exhibited their work at the autumn salon (salon was no longer the only place to show your work) Henri Matisse Work featured dynamic compositions, unexpected colour combinations, and patterns Details lost. Madame Matisse (The Green Line) 1905 Two sides of face-they are of equal lightness.. But you know it’s a shadow because of the colour Interest in primitive art The Street, 1907 Die Brucke- The Bridge – Germany 4 architects.. (1905- 1913). Linked past tradition and new innovation.. Interested in medieval spiritualism Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Primitive married to modern Harsh used of colour line and form, subject landscapes and nudes, carnival, circus, alienation, madness, social deviation, city itself was seen as alienation Still Life with Masks 1911 Only spent a year with the group.. Interested in bright colours and thick paint Carnivals.. Western tradition.. Red mask oceanic, yellow and black- shrunken head Emil Nolde Artists had no clue as to what the original cultural meaning of the masks.. They were only interested in how they look visually Modern artists progressive spiritual happy-go-lucky 1911 second movement in Germany –positive symbol, spiritual Blue Rider- Der Blaue Riter renewal.. New artist expression, incl
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