FSN 232 Study Guide - Final Guide: Joseph Paxton, Walter Gropius, Mary Cassatt

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
Department
Course
Professor
‘’
Nineteenth-Century Realism
19th century an age of revolutions (the
culmination of Enlightenment thinking and a
new focus on social equality)
clashes between different classes of people
The industrial revolution (starting in England)
Transformation of economy from agricultural
to industrial
Invention of the Steam Engine and new
materials like Iron and steel
Social and political movements for the rights of
workers
Jean-François Millet
Gleaners, 1857
- These people who work in the fields are noble
and heroic.. This is a pure way of life..
- Darkness in the front lit up in the back..
Representing contrast between the classes
- Railway Barron- people became very wealthy
because of the railway.. Land owners became
more wealthy poor became poorer
Rosa Bonheur
Horse Fair, 1853
Specialized in painting animals
She would cross dress to be allowed entrance to
slaughter houses to sketch anatomies
Strains of romanticism-Rearing up, sky dark/stormy
Close relationship with realism and other
movements of the time
1894 first female artist with the legion of honour
Gustave Courbet
Interior of My Studio: A Real Allegory Summing Up
Seven Years of My Life as an Artist from 1848 to
1855 , 1855
Amplified importance of himself , rejected
historical painting, idealism and fantasy. Thought
it should be about real life and personal
experiences.Modern- artist chooses what to paint
Left (his past) - poor and working class, Right (his
present and future) bourgeoisie
Honoré Daumier
Third-Class Carriage 1862
Interior of a First-Class Carriage , 1864
Contrasting the experiences of riding on the early
railways - Social injustice
Interest in industrial subjects
3rd class with 1st class
Mostly engaged in satirical drawings for
publications, political cartoonist
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‘’
Joseph-Nicéphore Niepce
View From His Window at Gras, 1826
Invention of photography
One of the earliest photographs ever produced
Big influence on artists- if they have photographs
they asked what is the purpose of art. Art had to
evolve
1850s onward- Debate weather photography was a
form of art or not
Julia Margaret Cameron
Mrs. Herbert Duckworth, 1867
Largely used her friends and family as subjects
Often dismissed because she was an amateur. She
wanted to remain an amateur because it allowed her
more freedom
She thought that photography was a form of art.
Avoided commercial studio setting
Image of beauty. Particular type of beauty during the
Victorian period. Roman nose
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Ecce Ancilla Domini (The Annunciation) 1850
English pre-Raphaelite english form of realism
After Raphael all art was bad..
Idealizing notions.. But they felt like it was authentic
Believed virgin adolescent.. Unsure of her place..
Iconographical elements.. Halo, lily, open window..
Combination of interest in historical past with new
idealization
John Everett Millais
John Ruskin 1854
- Attention to detail and nature, truth to nature
- Effie (wife of Ruskin) marriage was annulled..
Idealized women's body.. Was prudish..
Intellectually brilliant, but a social outcast
- Natural setting
- Ruskin conflicted figure.. Greatest critic and
writer of his generation
Édouard Manet
Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe 1863
- Realist to impressionist
- Believed that art should convey a truth
- Was rejected by the salon
- Offended that they knew who the nude was
and then offended that she wasn’t seen as a
Venus figure
Olympia 1865
- Scandal, inspired by Venus
- represents a prostitute
- emphasis on how it was painted
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‘’
Joseph Paxton
Crystal Palace, London 1850-1851
Transitional figure
Important in development of modern art
Visual spectacle, exhibition
Things from all over the world
Height of British empire- sense of ownership over
the rest of the world
Nineteenth-Century Impressionism
Impressionism:
Began in Paris in the 1860s, caught on in the 70s
and 80s. Was more loosely linked with the
experience of modern life (modernity). Subject
matter- leisure events, entertainment, landscape.
Influenced by photography & Japonisme. Based
on drawing from experience and observation. At
first, was rejected. Artists put on their own shows
and exhibitions. Eventually gaining popularity.
Aerial View of the Place de l’Étoile, Paris
They wanted to discourage revolutions.. People
would block streets.. This allowed more military
control so they bulldozed large places in Paris to
create boulevards
Changed how you felt about the city.. New sense of
being seen. More interest in fashion
Napoleon the 3rd. Modernized Paris.. Wanted it to be
a European capital
Édouard Manet
A Bar at the Folies-Bergère , 1881-1882
Transitional figure, became an impressionist
Capturing the effects of colour and light
Themes of the modern city: effects of pollution…
haziness in the background
Blurred effects (movement on film- effects of
photography)
Influenced by photography- importance of framing
life exists beyond the edges of the painting
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Moulin de la Galette, 1876
Outdoor leisure scenes. New city spaces
Parks with parties at night
Congregate to see and be seen by others
Inspired by bourgeoisie.. Interest in fashion, lifestyle,
traveling
Convergence of different classes
Social mobility & instability- anything could happen
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Document Summary

19th century an age of revolutions (the culmination of enlightenment thinking and a new focus on social equality) clashes between different classes of people. Invention of the steam engine and new materials like iron and steel. Social and political movements for the rights of workers. These people who work in the fields are noble and heroic Darkness in the front lit up in the back Railway barron- people became very wealthy because of the railway land owners became more wealthy poor became poorer. She would cross dress to be allowed entrance to slaughter houses to sketch anatomies. Close relationship with realism and other movements of the time. 1894 first female artist with the legion of honour. Interior of my studio: a real allegory summing up. Seven years of my life as an artist from 1848 to. Amplified importance of himself , rejected historical painting, idealism and fantasy.

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