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[GEO 106] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 51 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEO 106
Professor
Abednego Aryee
Study Guide
Final

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Ryerson
GEO 106
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Perception
What is it?
Pereptio is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information to fabricate a mental
represetatio … “hater, 
- It is subjective, explorable, evaluative, and judgemental
- Perceptions about the real world which we analyse to make decisions
- Reality can be a true reflection of the fact or a divergent from the fact, explaining why people have different
opinions about the issues. Ex. On an express road on a rush hour you will still be slow.
- Data collection using your senses
- Data processing using your brain
- We store that information in our brain, and it is transient so we can leak info, modify and store it.
- The fabrication of a mental representation
Try as we might, what is in your head is not what is outside of it!
- Perception is a cognitive process by which you try to make sense of the external orld…
- The ake deisios aout it ad our o life…
- All the tie haig to deal through ogitie proesses that hae ee shaped  that orld…
- Whih is a short a of saig…
Three Types of Decision Makers
Maximiser:
Absolute best solution. Considers all information available. No uncertainty because they have considered all
possibilities.
All information known and no uncertainty.
Never seen in life but useful for theoretical modelling.
Known as economic persons behaving under ceteris paribus conditions.
Will always arrive at the right decisions, and leaves them satisfied.
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Hydrosphere: Zone of water bodies, includes water in rivers, lakes, marshes, aquifers
Cryosphere: Zone of ice and snow, often found in Antarctica, Greenland and a few
mountain tops.
Cultural Relativity and Cognitive Filtering
- Truth: Undisputable fact, undeniable fat, idepedet of eeroe else’s opiio
- Tribes
o Yanomami Tribe Hunters and gatherers
o Sam and Koi Tribe Southern Africa
o Hill Tribe Papua New Guinea Skeleton Dance
- The Story of Rerebawa
o Anthropologist Picked up a native and wanted him to go into the car so her could take him to Karakas,
but Native did not know how to enter the car
Karakas Rerebawa found giant stones that have been arranged in impressive structures (City
buildings)
- Malinowski and cultural relativity
o People make their own judgement based on frame of reference. What they perceive to be true or real.
- Making oatmeal in the jungle.
- Rice is nice but bread instead.
o There are more serious examples of relative frames of reference gone amuck due to our egocentrism
and ethnocentrism in western development aid. For example, because we eat bread, we think everyone
eats bread, so we give aid in the form of a bread-making plant to an impoverished region with high
under-employment. However, the main local product is rice, so wheat must be imported; the local
people eat rice, so no-one buys the bread; and the high-tech plant hires only a few people, so people
still are unemployed and still cannot afford to buy food. This also is an example of insisting upon high
tech, high cost, low labour forms of agricultural practices (e.g. western agricultural practices) in poor
rural areas with large supplies of agricultural labour (which then become jobless surplus labour).
Similarly, in western industrialized countries we import water-wasting sprinkler irrigation systems from
water-rich regions to dryland, low water areas.
- Cogitie Filterig…
o Cognition is the mental mechanism through which we process information and includes perception,
memory, recall, language, decision making, action, etc.
Seeing is believing What you want to do Perceptions of Reality
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