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GEO 106 Study Guide - Final Guide: Strategy Of Unbalanced Growth, Urban Ecology, Demographic Transition

Course Code
GEO 106
Sue Laskin
Study Guide

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GEO 106 Exam Review
Exam Structure
Part A: 40 Multiple Choice 10%
Based on Chapters 9, 10, 11 and 12
Part B: Choice of Essay 30%
Choice of 2 questions
Total: 40%
Chapter 9: Urbanization
Extent of urbanization
Urban growth versus urbanization
- Urban growth: occurs when rates of growth between urban and rural
populations are about the same over the long term and over wide areas
- Urbanization: occurs when urban growth rates outstrip rural growth rates
through some combination of natural increase in population and rural to
urban migration rates
The urbanization curve
- Compromised of three stages described by rates of growth (how fast a
population is becoming urban) and levels of growth (what share of
population is urban). The stages are:
o Initial stage
o Growth stage
o Terminal stage
Level of Growth
Rate of Growth
Initial Stage
Growth Stage
Terminal Stage
Changes associated with urbanization
o Demographic changes: natural increase and migration
o Economic changes: economic activity leads to innovation
o Urban changes: size and characteristics of population
The demographic transition
o A simple model that describes the interplay between births, deaths and
natural increase, and the resultant stages in which a population ends up.
Pop Growth = (birth deaths) + (in-migration out-migration)
Pop Growth = natural increase + net migration

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Chapter 10: Urban Form
Von Thunen’s model (1826)
o In the 1800s Von Thunen, seeking to maximize income from crops found
on his farmland, developed the agricultural bid rent model.
o Location of individual crops to marketplace dependent on each crop’s
profitability (ability to pay the cost of the land, “rent”)
o Profit = revenue cost
o Revenue from sale of crop
o Cost of production and transportation
Bid rent (also know as land rent theory)
o Based on the idea that a particular piece of land will be used for the
activity that can pay the highest “rent”
o It is an economic concept of “payment” for the use of land
o The idea is that each piece of land gets sold or rented to the “highest and
best use” where they are willing to pay the most
o Best location in the city center because of accessibility
o Highest bidder pays the most, gets the most central location
o Trade-off b/w distance and rent (change in distance from city center is
compensated by decrease in rent)
o Highest and best use
Impact of transportation on urban form
o The further one lives away from the core the more money must be spent
to get to the core
City’s countryside
o Boundaries of the city eat up the countryside with new housing, retailing,
and industrial developments
o The spatial extension of the physical form of the city (buildings, roads)
o The spatial extension of the city’s sphere of influence (economic power,
political decision making, attitudes through media)
o The increase of the social overhead capital of the city (development of
schools, hospitals, roads)
o Overall increase in the economic and psychological sophistication of the
city and its boundary
o Over time the attitudes, expectations and preferences of city people
invade the countryside producing time-space convergence and
distantiation with time-space transportation and communication
Burgess model of city structure
o Distance and bid rent are the major process underlying this form, even
though Burgess doesn’t discuss either
o Didn’t mention that if the city doesn’t grow in response to core
pressures, or the growth is initiated in the periphery, then the premise of
the model fails
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