GEO 106 Study Guide - Final Guide: Strategy Of Unbalanced Growth, Urban Ecology, Demographic Transition

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21 Mar 2013
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Course
Professor
GEO 106 Exam Review
Exam Structure
Part A: 40 Multiple Choice 10%
Based on Chapters 9, 10, 11 and 12
Part B: Choice of Essay 30%
Choice of 2 questions
Total: 40%
Chapter 9: Urbanization
Extent of urbanization
Urban growth versus urbanization
- Urban growth: occurs when rates of growth between urban and rural
populations are about the same over the long term and over wide areas
- Urbanization: occurs when urban growth rates outstrip rural growth rates
through some combination of natural increase in population and rural to
urban migration rates
The urbanization curve
- Compromised of three stages described by rates of growth (how fast a
population is becoming urban) and levels of growth (what share of
population is urban). The stages are:
o Initial stage
o Growth stage
o Terminal stage
Level of Growth
Rate of Growth
Initial Stage
Low
Low
Growth Stage
Increasing
High
Terminal Stage
High
Low
Changes associated with urbanization
o Demographic changes: natural increase and migration
o Economic changes: economic activity leads to innovation
o Urban changes: size and characteristics of population
The demographic transition
o A simple model that describes the interplay between births, deaths and
natural increase, and the resultant stages in which a population ends up.
Pop Growth = (birth deaths) + (in-migration out-migration)
Or
Pop Growth = natural increase + net migration
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Chapter 10: Urban Form
Von Thunen’s model (1826)
o In the 1800s Von Thunen, seeking to maximize income from crops found
on his farmland, developed the agricultural bid rent model.
o Location of individual crops to marketplace dependent on each crop’s
profitability (ability to pay the cost of the land, “rent”)
o Profit = revenue cost
o Revenue from sale of crop
o Cost of production and transportation
Bid rent (also know as land rent theory)
o Based on the idea that a particular piece of land will be used for the
activity that can pay the highest “rent”
o It is an economic concept of “payment” for the use of land
o The idea is that each piece of land gets sold or rented to the “highest and
best use” where they are willing to pay the most
o Best location in the city center because of accessibility
o Highest bidder pays the most, gets the most central location
o Trade-off b/w distance and rent (change in distance from city center is
compensated by decrease in rent)
o Highest and best use
Impact of transportation on urban form
o The further one lives away from the core the more money must be spent
to get to the core
City’s countryside
o Boundaries of the city eat up the countryside with new housing, retailing,
and industrial developments
o The spatial extension of the physical form of the city (buildings, roads)
o The spatial extension of the city’s sphere of influence (economic power,
political decision making, attitudes through media)
o The increase of the social overhead capital of the city (development of
schools, hospitals, roads)
o Overall increase in the economic and psychological sophistication of the
city and its boundary
o Over time the attitudes, expectations and preferences of city people
invade the countryside producing time-space convergence and
distantiation with time-space transportation and communication
technologies
Burgess model of city structure
o Distance and bid rent are the major process underlying this form, even
though Burgess doesn’t discuss either
o Didn’t mention that if the city doesn’t grow in response to core
pressures, or the growth is initiated in the periphery, then the premise of
the model fails
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Document Summary

Based on chapters 9, 10, 11 and 12. Urban growth: occurs when rates of growth between urban and rural populations are about the same over the long term and over wide areas. Urbanization: occurs when urban growth rates outstrip rural growth rates through some combination of natural increase in population and rural to urban migration rates. Compromised of three stages described by rates of growth (how fast a population is becoming urban) and levels of growth (what share of population is urban). Changes associated with urbanization: demographic changes: natural increase and migration, economic changes: economic activity leads to innovation, urban changes: size and characteristics of population. The demographic transition: a simple model that describes the interplay between births, deaths and natural increase, and the resultant stages in which a population ends up. Pop growth = (birth deaths) + (in-migration out-migration) Pop growth = natural increase + net migration.

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