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GEO 605 Study Guide - Final Guide: Saxifraga Oppositifolia, Ice Wedge, Sea Ice

Course Code
GEO 605
David Atkinson
Study Guide

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GEO605 Lecture 1
What is the most significant problem facing northern Canada?
- Food & water security
- Glaciers
- Climate change, melting snow
What is North?
- We can look @ the temperature
- Arctic circle = defines solar boundary
o December 31st sun does not rise
o Dash line tree line
North of tree line, trees don’t normally grow
Roots cant get deep enough
“tundra” <- north of tree line; nothing in your way
o Boreal forest = largest biome in the world
Encircles the globe
Stretches across Canada
Starts north of Sudbury
- Nunavik
o Northern portion of Quebec
- Why do we care?
o We have a pride when it comes to the north
Canadian identity
- North is loaded w/ natural resources
- Canada is a resource based economy
- Louis northness real or perceived
o Measures/quantitative/qualitative approach
o Measurement and scale of where oyu are on the globe is north
o 1. Latitutde= the further north you are, the better score
o Type of ice lake ice? No ice?
o Precipitation deserts
o Vegetation cover tundra? Forrest?
o Accessibility how do u get there? Drive? Ice road?
o Degree of economic activity what is the economics of this location
- Red zone = southern Canada
o Little of Canada falls within definition
o Rest of Canada is defined as north
o Based on Hamlins index we are a northern
o Cape vouny further north, 4 population, economic activity minimum
- Disadvantage:
o Designed in 1979, outdated
o Quantify are getting changed and shifted
o How do u measure economic activity?
o Culture biased
Term test there will be a map question
“what community is located @ #1?
What territory @ #2?
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Geo605 - Lecture 3
No clean drinking water or proper schooling system (current problem) -> for paper
- Micheal den tandt
- Yukon, NWT, Nunavut
- Remote northern communities
- Suicide rates in Canada 12% higher compared rest of Canada
- Bring in other references from other articles relating back to main topic
What is tundra?
- Means treeless plain
- Alpine and arctic tundra
- Furthest north biome
o Roots and trees cannot get deep enough because of permafrost
- Defined by the extent of treeline
o Boundary where climatic reasons trees cannot grow
- Youngest biome
o 10,000 yrs old
o Ice age
- Characterized by:
o Cold climate
o Limit on drainage
o Short season of growth
July and august
o Low biotic diversity
Limited species
o Simple vegetation structure
o Energy and nutrient in form of dead organic material
Recycled short and small
o Large population oscillation (species)
- Not pure ice, just cold and below 0
- MUST be below 0 all year long
- Talik warms grounds and thaws the snow (10-60m deep)
- Permafrost is frozen ground
- Continuous (north), discontinuous (south) -> patches of vegetation
- Treeline also the continuous permafrost line
- Active layer -> thaws in the summer
o depth -> vegetation (acts as a insulator and keeps water in)
summer temperature
soil type
Periglacial Environment
- near glaciers
- -40 - +20
- Suit of process dominated by the environment
Ice wedge polygon
- Active layers
- Permafrost the deeper you go
- Lots of cracks in water when you get colder
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- Vegetation is formed in the cracks of the polygod wedges
o Moistures in the cracks because of water buildups
Frost shattering
- Water expands 10% when it frees
- Water seeps into cracks, joints and bedding plains in rock, freezes and splits the rock
- Water getting into surface (lots of broken rocks)
Frost heave
- Mud slowly errogating down because its freezing and thawing at the same time
- Soilfluction lobe
Monument stones
- Vegation is more green closer to rocks rather than further
o Change in wind
o More birds
Mud boils
- Most active feature when things are thawing
- When permafrost melts, water is shown
- Deep
In 2007
- Rained a lot
- 22 degrees
- Ice in soil are thawing
Can see the age of sediment patterns through raised beaches
- Permafrost
- Raised mountains
o Solid core of ice in the middle
o Ice may melt over time and can collapse
o Dry lands
- Created by glaicers
- Higher more longer more windswept
- Long tube looking mountains
- Formed by ancient river inside the glaciers
- Can run 100km
- Cariaboo will follow these eskers, foxes will build dens
- Diamond minds are found inside
- Source of sand and gravel
Geo605 lecture 4
Nutrient cycle
- Plants take up CO2 store it and put out oxygen
- Organic matter dies and relases co2
- Carbon mixes in north are harder to decompose
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