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GEO 106 Exam Review.docx

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GEO 106
Sue Laskin

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GEO 106 Exam Review Exam Structure Part A: 40 Multiple Choice 10%  Based on Chapters 9, 10, 11 and 12 Part B: Choice of Essay 30%  Choice of 2 questions Total: 40% Chapter 9: Urbanization  Extent of urbanization  Urban growth versus urbanization - Urban growth: occurs when rates of growth between urban and rural populations are about the same over the long term and over wide areas - Urbanization: occurs when urban growth rates outstrip rural growth rates through some combination of natural increase in population and rural to urban migration rates  The urbanization curve - Compromised of three stages described by rates of growth (how fast a population is becoming urban) and levels of growth (what share of population is urban). The stages are: o Initial stage o Growth stage o Terminal stage Level of Growth Rate of Growth Initial Stage Low Low Growth Stage Increasing High Terminal Stage High Low  Changes associated with urbanization o Demographic changes: natural increase and migration o Economic changes: economic activity leads to innovation o Urban changes: size and characteristics of population  The demographic transition o A simple model that describes the interplay between births, deaths and natural increase, and the resultant stages in which a population ends up. Pop Growth = (birth – deaths) + (in-migration – out-migration) Or Pop Growth = natural increase + net migration Chapter 10: Urban Form  Von Thunen’s model (1826) o In the 1800s Von Thunen, seeking to maximize income from crops found on his farmland, developed the agricultural bid rent model. o Location of individual crops to marketplace dependent on each crop’s profitability (ability to pay the cost of the land, “rent”) o Profit = revenue – cost o Revenue from sale of crop o Cost of production and transportation  Bid rent (also know as land rent theory) o Based on the idea that a particular piece of land will be used for the activity that can pay the highest “rent” o It is an economic concept of “payment” for the use of land o The idea is that each piece of land gets sold or rented to the “highest and best use” where they are willing to pay the most o Best location in the city center because of accessibility o Highest bidder pays the most, gets the most central location o Trade-off b/w distance and rent (change in distance from city center is compensated by decrease in rent) o Highest and best use  Impact of transportation on urban form o The further one lives away from the core the more money must be spent to get to the core  City’s countryside o Boundaries of the city eat up the countryside with new housing, retailing, and industrial developments o The spatial extension of the physical form of the city (buildings, roads) o The spatial extension of the city’s sphere of influence (economic power, political decision making, attitudes through media) o The increase of the social overhead capital of the city (development of schools, hospitals, roads) o Overall increase in the economic and psychological sophistication of the city and its boundary o Over time the attitudes, expectations and preferences of city people invade the countryside producing time-space convergence and distantiation with time-space transportation and communication technologies  Burgess model of city structure o Distance and bid rent are the major process underlying this form, even though Burgess doesn’t discuss either o Didn’t mention that if the city doesn’t grow in response to core pressures, or the growth is initiated in the periphery, then the premise of the model fails o The model takes no account of pull factors o While zonal pattern is typical in bid rent theory, there is no fundamental reason why such a zonal pattern would emerge in the Burgess model since he doesn’t  Hoyt model of city structure o Hoyt mapped out housing prices for cities by dividing the cities into pie- shaped wedges and calculating average house prices in those wedges. o His model suggested that a sectorial pattern of land uses evolved based on the ability of piece of land to pay rent, though not in the strict bid rent sense of the term  Harris-Ullman model of city structure o They thought that the CBD may have been the most important focus but it was not the only focus o Recognized that no single influence on land use patterns prevailed and any one of the factors could dominate Chapter 11: Groups of People in Cities  Urban ecology o Urban ecological approach included two important points:  It concentrated on the characteristics of people in certain places (communities or neighborhoods) and the tensions and conflicts at the boundaries (ecotones) of those communities that gave rise to succession and dominance among the groups, thus changing the nature of places.  Social area analysis (SAA) o Developed in the late 1940s and early 1950s during the very early days of logical positivism in the social sciences o There is a measureable and visible social structure to the city o Urbanization created societal complexity and functional differentiation  Differentiation of people in the city based on three constructs/existing dimensions:  Social status  Family status  Economic status o Social status  Tendency of society to become more stratified based on work specialization  Occupation associated with education and income  Socio-economic status (SES): wealth (income, value of home), occupation, education o Family status  As cities grow, traditional family organization weakens as institutions take over traditional support (e.g. welfar
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