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Ryerson University
GEO 312
Michael J.Bardecki

Las Vegas: Mid-Term 1 Study Sheet Geography: • The study of the Earth as the world of humankind, with special emphasizes on spatial phenomena Who is a Geographer: • Someone with an inclination to draw a map • A geographer is someone who when reading a book written by an economist, sociologist, historian or political scientist wonders “How could this have been published without a map”?  The course will be a “deconstruction of Las Vegas • Construction: 1. To make or form by combing parts; build 2. To set a logical order • Destruction: 1. To ruin the structure, organic existence, or condition of demolish 2. To put out of existence • Deconstruction(This is what we will talk about) 1. To breakdown into components; dismantle 2. To write about or analyze following tenets of destruction Approaches to Understanding Social Problems • What is a Social Problem? Exist when: 1. Condition adversely affects significant number of people 2. An influential group is affected 3. Situation can be remedied by human action • Conditions that can lead to social problems: 1. Deviance from group values and norms 2. Decline in effectiveness of social institutions 3. Issues based on social diversity 4. Exercise of power and authority that creates and exacerbates problems • How do societies work?  Three theoretical perspectives: 1. Functionalist 2. Conflict 3. (Symbolic) Interactionist, social constructivism Functionalist Perceptive • Society is a complex system of parts that interact organically to accomplish various necessary functions. • Change is generally accepted if gradual but seen as disruptive • Social stratification is natural, inevitable, necessary Conflict Perceptive: • Views society as a struggle for resources and power • Different groups compete for “scarce” resources: money, power, prestige, authority • Some groups prosper at the expense of others • Change is inevitable, often beneficial and can be violent • Conflict is universal; social consensus is limited; inequality is widespread • Variants include feminism, Marxism Internationalist Perspective • Recognition that interpersonal relationships are important sources of social change • Interaction between individuals is negotiated through shared symbols and nonverbal communications • Social change involves a new consensuses and different meanings(e.g social movements) • Apparently natural or innate features of life are often sustained by social processes that very historically and culturally (e.g centrality of nuclear “family values” roles of men and women in society) Internationalist Explanations of Deviance/conformity Differential association: • Individuals learn to break the law because of the influence of friends, family, neighborhoods Control Theory: • All are tempted, but our bonds in society encourage the internalization of mortality, integrity, fear of being punished, desire to be “good” Labeling theory: • The labels people are given affect their own and others perception of them so encourage either deviance or conformity. Casino Capitalism  Deflation affects investment negatively  High inflation affects individuals negatively  Inflation rates are being solved in the current years  Personal savings started to decrease since 1980 U.S Government Policy  Promoted home ownership  Federal government brought in a whole series of prices of legislation and established Federal Housing Administration and agencies Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac  These agencies were brought in for underwriting of home loans and guarantee lenders payment in case of default Fannie Mae: • Founded 1938 during Great Depression as part of a new deal • It is a government sponsored enterprise though it has been a publicly traded company since 1968 • The corporations purpose is to expand the secondary mortgage market by securitizing mortgages in form of mortgage backed securities allows lenders to reinvest their assets into more lending and in effect increasing number of lenders in the mortgage market by reducing reliance on thrifts. st  Early 21 century China and America dominated, China was doing the saving and America was doing the spending  United States took the money and piled it on debt  US defi
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