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Midterm

MIDTERM 2 REVIEW
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Department
Geography
Course
GEO 312
Professor
Michael J.Bardecki
Semester
Fall

Description
Las Vegas Test 2 Review 1) China Effect: DOUBLE CHECK THIS -One of the reasons, poor have not being doing as badly as first appearance during the rising equality -controlled even decreasing prices for basics and greater range of available goods - EX: spending by poor is not inflating as fast as much of the rich - Estimate 213 of growing inequality was offset by lower inflation 2) 2010 U.S. Health Care Bill: -estimated 45.0 million people, 15.6% of the populations were without health insurance coverage, 2003 -Children without health insurance – 8.4 million, 11.4% of all children - Uninsured are only 25% likely to have usual source of care outside the emergency room -uninsured often go without screening and preventive care -excess deaths annually result due to lack of health insurance -In 2010, the law includes health related provisions to take effect over several years, including expanding Medicaid people making up to 133% of the federal poverty level  Providing incentives to businesses to provide health care benefits, prohibiting denial of coverage and denial of claims based on pre –existing conditions, establishing health care exchanges and support for medical research -2010 Act, requires insurers to cover more costs, requiring that at least of 80% of premiums must be spent on medical care or quality improvement and requiring full coverage for screenings and immunizations, by probating life time and annual caps  Also, young adults allowed to stay on their parents health plan until the age of 26  Many health plans previously dropped dependants from the coverage when they turned 19 or finished college  Tax credit also becomes available to for small business to provide coverage for workers 3) Booker T. Washington: -The most prominent black man in America, early 1900’s - Story of a young black slaves that rises to national prominence through hard work -He was an American educator, author, orator, and a political leader -The dominate figure in the African – American community in the U.S from 1890 – 1915 -Was the representative of the last generation of black American leaders born in slavery  spoke behalf of the large majority of blacks who lived in the South but had lost their ability to vote -Opponents called his powerful network of supporters “The Tuskehee Machine”  He maintained power because of his ability to gain support of many groups: influential whites, the black business, educational and religious communities nationwide and his accommodation to the political realities of the age of Jim Crow segregation -He attainted his national prominence for his Atlanta Address of 1895, which attracted the attention of politicians and the public, making him popular spokesperson for African – America  Played dominate role in black politics, winning wide support in the black community and among more liberal whites  He gained access to top national leaders in politics, philanthropy, and education -His efforts included cooperating with the white people, helping to raise funds to establish and operate thousands of small community schools and institutions of higher education for the betterment of blacks throughout the South - He argued that the surest way for blacks to gain social rights was to demonstrate “industry, thrift, intelligence and property” 4) Canada Health Act: -is a piece of the Canadian federal legislation, 1984 -specifics the conditions and criteria with which province and territorial health insurance programs must conform to receive federal transform payments under the Canadian Health Transfer - primary objective of the act is “to protect, promote and restore the physical and mental well being of residents of Canada and to facilitate reasonable access to health services without financial or other barriers  In order for this to happen, the act lists a set of criteria and conditions that the provinces must follow -Aim of the act is to ensure that all eligible residents of Canada have reasonable access to insured health services on a prepaid basis, without direct charges at the point of service for such services 5) CEO/Workers Pay Ratio: MORE INFO IS NEEDED -there is unequal distribution of income  Income inequality among families have increased for 3 reasons 1. Growing inequality in earnings of men 2. Growth of single parent families 3. Movement -productivity is up 30% however wages are down 9% -100 Best Paid CEO’s  Canada’s best paid CEO’s are pocketed 104 times more than average workers in 1988 6) Common Interest Development (CIDs): -fasted growing form of housing in the world today - They are commonly seen as condominiums, time shares, planned unit developments along with other titles and descriptions -ownership benefits of CIDs are to have the rights to an undivided interest in common areas which might prove to be too expensive to be solely owned  EX: An owner would like to have a pool but cannot afford one of their own -nowhere in the U.S is this transformation more visible than in Las Vegas, Nevada -non-municipal form of local governance -impetus for master planned communities seen as failures of municipalities to provide infrastructure and social values, seen as out of touch citizens -virtually nothing other than CIDs are allowed for new developments in Las Vegas valley -in city of Las Vegas it is virtual mandate -gated security developments often norm -zoning code and development code in city of Las Vegas  EX: there are neighborhood codes detailing what and what is not allowed such as standards for landscaping, yard maintenance, colour schemes 7) Congregation: -A heaven of cohesiveness amount minorities -defensive: clustering in response to discrimination  EX: Chinatown in Vancouver resulted from threats of violence toward Chinese community; Protestant and Catholics in Northern Ireland; lack of confidence in legal protection -mutual support: friendship, extended families, institutions -cultural support: preservation and fostering distinctive culture  EX: Orthodox Jewish communities; minority group identification and consciousness  EX: Gay community; culturally – supportive business (food, services) 8) Covenants, Codes (conditions) and restrictions (CC&Rs): -One of the three interlinked developments which is associated with Master Planned Communities -presence of CC&Rs is really the way to define master planned communities - they are neighborhood codes detailing what and what is not allowed  EX: standards for landscaping, yard maintenance, colour schemes  Sometimes, it may even go far to EX: how long garage doors can be left open, restricting parking in driveways, home furnishing which can be seen from the streets, colour of curtains, banning delivery of all newspapers expect that of the homeowner association, prohibiting political lawn signs -typically they are enforced by property managers hired by homeowners association or developers -CC&Rs are written by developer, but typically are only subject to change by a supermajority (2/3 of all owners, not just those who vote)  Complicated by seasonal residents and absentee owners who rent out their properties; change is often very difficult -CC&Rs are used by developers to create a lifestyle image which is often a key part of their promotion and marketing - developer maintains effective control until 51% of units are sold; a reserve is set aside for the association expenses 9) Discrimination: -is a prejudicial treatment of an individual based on their membership in a certain group or category -it involves the actual behaviour towards group such as excluding or restricting members of one group from opportunities that are available to another group -enforced spatial isolation -tightly – knit communities block influxes of minority groups by refusal to sell, hostility, petty violence -market isolation: limiting access to housing -limited access to economic opportunity, hence lack of choice in housing, relegated to low –cost inner city neighborhoods; jobs and services concentrated in inner city; lack of transportation opportunities -EX of Discrimination: real estate agents encouraged black families to move into black neighborhoods 10) Federal Housing Policy: NO IDEA, NO INFO FROM MY NOTES 11/12) Gated Communities: -is a residential area with restricted access in which normally public spaces are privatized -form of a residential community or housing estate that contains strictly controlled entrances for pedestrians, bicycles and automobiles, and often characterized by a closed perimeter of walls/fences  Walls/fences are intended to prevent penetration by non residents -security developments with designated permeters -any real estate developer will tell you, the hottest idea in the new suburbs these days is the gated community, the subdivision surrounded by a wall but a protected gate that residents control  Whether, is it secured by a guardhouse or operated by a remote control, that gate offers suburbanites a sense of security and exclusivity  Idea of a gate is so compelling that it is literally impossible to sell a suburban subdivision to homebuyers above a certain income category -key result is the issues of privatization of general municipal services and insularity from larger political system - private communities provide their own security, street maintenance, recreation amenities, parks, garbage pickup etc; tax payers are relieved of these costs -however, effect may be to reduce voter support for general tax program, additional services (EX: schools, police) -Municipalities’ point of view, there are advantages  Similar tax revolts led to preference being given to master planned communities 13) Global Climate Change: -significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years -it may be a change in average weather conditions or the distribution of events around that average -climate change may be limited to a specific region or may occur across the whole earth -great deal of inconsistency in temperature -glaciers and polar ice caps recorded the history of historical climate change in the buildup of the ice layers and in air bubbles they contain -carbon dioxide goes up in water and falls in growing season -burning fossil fuels brings carbon dioxide -sun is not stable with output -projected changes in average snowpack in the West due to global warming 14) Growth Machine Model: CANT FIND ANY INFO, HAVE NO NOTES 15) Hispanics as a minority group: - Politically defined designator -discrimination in housing since first members of Hispanics arrived after World War 2 -fasting growing area in Nevada, fasted growing Mexican born migrants as percentage -Hispanics composes the largest minority groups in the nation -Hispanics have origins in the Spanish speaking countries of Latin America and Spain -like their country or origin, the group is heterogeneous in various ways including race and ancestry -the group is not a race -Hispanic population is young and fast growing due to immigration and high birth rates 16stHistory of Lotteries in the U.S: -1 Wave: State Sanctioned Lotteries (1607 – 1840)  Private brokers licensed by the state -2nd Wave: National Lotteries (1860-1890)  Private brokers licensed by the Southern states -3rd Wave: Golden Age of Pari-Mutuel Betting (1920-1964)  45 states legalized primarily horse racing o Based on technological advances (e.g., wire services) o Off-set revenue by Prohibition o Issues of class distinction -4th Wave: State Operated Lotteries (1964-1993)  4 key differences from 1st three waves o Breadth – consistent revenue source for state government in 38 states and Washington, DC o Depth – multiple games: daily number, lotto scratch tickets, keno & VLTS o State authorization and ownership (5 states use private vendors) o Good causes – in past lotteries were one time event; at present consistent source of revenue -5th Wave: The Triumph of Casino Gambling (1993-present)  Casino gambling in 27 states  3 explanations for Casino’s growth accounting for 41% of total gambling revenue: o 1980s Las Vegas and Atlantic City transformed from gambling to mass marketed “middle- America” oriented vacation centers o 1990s re-introduction of riverboat gambling (limited casino play) o 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) led to development of Indian Casino gambling § IGRA provides framework for games; defines different “classes” of gaming— regulated differently § 558 Federally recognized tribes § 24 states have tribal-state compacts to permit casino-style gaming § 326 tribal gambling operations § Indian gaming 1999 $8.26B (10+% of total gaming industry)  86% Americans have gambled at least once in their life; 68% Americans gambled in past year; the majority of American gamble without significant negative consequences  Yet 2.5% of gamblers account for 15% of all gambling  In several states gambling is third leading source of state revenue; yet only 15 states have publicly funded Problem Gambling (PG) treatment and only 16 states have completed PG prevalence studies  2001: 1.9 M Americans gambled $4.2B on Internet 17) Homeowners Association: -corporation formed by real estate developer for the purpose of marketing, managing, and selling of homes and lots in residential subdivisions -grants developers the privileged voting rights in governing the association, while allowing the developer to exit financial and legal responsibility of the organization, typically by transferring ownership of the association to the homeowner after selling a number of lots -some homeowner associations hire and retain property management companies - The fastest growing form of housing in the United States today is common-interest developments (CIDs), a category that includes planned-unit developments of single-family homes, condominiums, and cooperative apartments - Since 1964, homeowner associations have become increasingly common in the US 18) Income Inequality: -income inequality among families has increased for 3 reasons  Growing inequality in earnings of men  Growth of single parent families  Movement -Upper Class: wealthy people who are business owners or senior managers  Inherited wealth -Middle Class:  Secure comfortable income -Working Class:  Income provided for minimum need -Lower Class:  At or near minimum wage, no job benefits -American society has exhibited greater and greater inequality, 1973:  Inflation of housing costs, medical care, and cost of living  Wages were stagnant in real terms for those without college degree  Changes in welfare policy  Reduced benefits  “The end of welfare as we know it”  Economic restructuring  International competition from Latin America and Asia  Transition from manufacturing to service economy  Change in notion of “career” to nonstandard, with less job security 19) Indian Gaming Regulatory Act: -led to Indian Casino Gambling -establishes the jurisdictional framework that governs Indian gaming -there was no federal faming structure before this act -purpose of this act include providing a legislative basis for the operation/regulation of Indian gaming, protecting gaming as a means of generating revenues for the tribes, encouraging economic development of these tribes, and protecting the enterprises from negative influences 20) Infrared energy: NO IDEA 21) Intergenerational transmission of economic success: -Horatio Alger myth rags to riches -many studies by economists examining correlation between investigating class mobility between generations (almost always father – son) in earnings and sociologists investing class mobility between generations -long run intergenerational correlation between generations -education appears to be a major mediating factor in class mobility -intergenerational correlations for Canada and Nordic countries are less than those in US because:  high elasticity in US; higher degree of immobility in lower and higher income groups  Also, intergenerational correlation higher for daughters than sons, greater cost coming from a disadvantaged family from daughter than son  Slower mobility among black families and downward mobility pressure much higher 22
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